Science Alchemy Alchemy, ancient art practiced especially in the Middle Ages, devoted chiefly to discovering a substance that would transmute the more common metals into gold or silver and to finding a means of indefinitely prolonging human life. Although its purposes and techniques were dubious and often illusory, alchemy was in many ways the predecessor of modern science, especially the science of chemistry. The birthplace of alchemy was ancient Egypt, where, in Alexandria, it began to flouris
Why the North won the Civil War "You Are Bound to Fail." Union officer William Tecumseh Sherman to a Southern friend: In all history, no nation of mere agriculturists ever made successful war against a nation of mechanics. . .. You are bound to fail. (Catton, Glory Road 241) The American antebellum South, though steeped in pride and raised in military tradition, was to be no match for the burgeoning superiority of the rapidly developing North in the coming Civil War. The lack of emphasis on manu
American Revolution American Revolution A revolutionary is someone that is not eager or does not feel the need to be a revolutionary. That is what the colonists were when they established their lives in America. The British were proud to be English and not French or Dutch. They looked up to the king and used English things. They respected Britain. For them there was no need to be a revolutionary. They didn\'t want to fight the power of the government. The Colonists really respected the king and
Australian history - Populate or Perish Australian history - Populate or Perish On the forming of the Federation of Australia, on 1 January 1901, one of the first priorities of the new Federal Government was to increase Australia\'s population. One way was to encourage an increase in the birth rate, which had been falling. A second way was to encourage immigration, not only from Great Britain, but also from other European countries. The main requirement was that immigrants be white skinned. Alth
Apache and Cherokee Indians Apache and Cherokee Indians The Apache Indians of North America prospered for years throughout Kansas, New Mexico, and Arizona. They were a religious society who believed in a "giver of life". As any complex society today, The Apache had many inter-tribal differences, although the tribe as a whole was able to see through these conflicts. Women and the extended family played an important role in the society and also in the lives of young children. Groups of different e
World Influence on the Modernization of Africa World Influence on the Modernization of Africa Developing Political Systems The way countries, nations or states act and base their policies on many times reflect what their past was like. This is very true in the case of Africa. The only problem is that Africa is said to have no history. This just means that Africas many cultures did not affect the way imperialists and other influences acted towards the huge continent. Everything was based on thei
A background of Argentina A background of Argentina In the beginning of Argentina, we recall two major tribes; the Diaguita and the Gaurani who constituted the agricultural origins. During the 1500s, Spain discovered Argentina, and quickly claimed it for its own. Spain reigned until the 1800s when it was at war with Britain. In 1816 Argentina declared independence from Spain. After WWII there was a struggle for leadership of Argentina, eventually Juan Peron, a former dictator, was elected Pres
British Imperialism in Africa British Imperialism in Africa The motives of Britain\'s imperialist activities in Africa from 1869 to 1912 were strategic and defensive. While other motives did exist, such as to colonize, to search for new markets and materials, to attain revenge and world prestige, to convert natives to Christianity, and to spread the English style of orderly government, the main motives evident in many events of the period showed attempts to safeguard the country and protect form
Britain and Europe in the Seventeenth Century Britain and Europe in the Seventeenth Century J.R. Jones, a Professor of English History in the School of English Studies at the University of East Anglia, England, in Britain and Europe in the Seventeenth Century, has written a very informative and interesting book. Britain and Europe in the Seventeenth Century is a relatively short book that deals with the impact that Britain had on European affairs at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The
D-day D-day What day in your life was the most important? One of the most important days during World War II was D-day. Don\'t be mistaken by the word D-day it did not all happens in just one day but many days. D-day was just a code name for the day that Operation Overload started. D-day is very well known for the beginning of the end of the war in Europe and Hitler\'s rule over most of the ruined continent of Europe. Many say that if it were not for D-day Europe would have definitely fell to Hi
France and England: A comparison of Governments France and England: A comparison of Governments In Early Modern Europe, countries were discovering and changing the ways in which they operated. While some, for a period of time stuck to their old traditional ways, others were embarking on a journey that would change the course of their country. This paper, will explore and evaluate the two different government styles of France and England one keeping with the traditional ways of their ancestors
French and English Relations - A History of Conflict French and English Relations - A History of Conflict A great man once said, "Love thy neighbor as thyself..." Unfortunately in Canada, that is not the case. For many years, hostility has existed between the two largest ethnic denominations in our country, the French and the English. Both have tried to undermine one another in aspects of religion, language, culture and politics. To understand the cause of this continuing bitter saga, one must t
Globe Theatre Globe Theatre In the cobblestone roadways and roughly built playhouses, an extraordinary development took place in England in the 1500s. At that time, a burst of literary accomplishments arose that was never before seen in the history of the theater. In the all-new idea of theaters, playwrights lifted the Elizabethan Theater to new heights. Men like Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe dared to write plays about real people in a variety of real situations. (Yowell 13) Through their
Hsi Lai Temple Hsi Lai Temple Personal Perspective When this paper was first assigned to us I didn\'t have any clue as to which Asian American religion was worth doing research on. As timed passed and more thought was given to the project I finally decided to go with Buddhism. The reason why I choose Buddhism as my topic is to allow me to relate more closely to the friends and family members who are Buddhist. In my family most of them are strong believers in Buddhism. As a child I never really u
History of Portugal History of Portugal Under King Emanuel, Portuguese power reached its height. From 1497 to 1499 Vasco da Gama made the first voyage to India following the route discovered by Dias, and inaugurated a lucrative trade in spices and other luxuries between Europe and South Asia. Led by Afonso de Albuquerque, the Portuguese occupied Goa, India, in 1510, Malacca (now Melaka, Malaysia) in 1511, the Moluccas (in present-day Indonesia) in 1512-14, and Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf i
History of Psychology History of Psychology Academics have always been interested in how the mind works and indeed psychology has existed in one form or another for many years, but other subjects, especially philosophy, have often overshadowed it. Often it was seen as not scientific and philosophical in the sense that there seemed to be no concrete answers within the subject. Now it is one of the most popular subjects to study and has a firm place within the sciences. It is interesting to consid
Imperialism in Late 1800\'s Imperialism in Late 1800\'s The most important of the European territorial possessions was British India. The British first entered India as traders in the early 1600\'s. The British made alliances with Indian rulers and created its own army of Indian soldiers called sepoys. The driving force behind the British expansion in India was the British East India Company. Their power soon became known as the Raj as they extended their power. After a while they became respons
Iran-Contra Affair Iran-Contra Affair Iran-Contra: Crossing That Line "I think everyone knew we were walking a very thin line."(Owen) Not many Americans know the truth that lies behind the Iran-Contra scandals. Most would be surprised to know about the deception of our leaders. Still today, some truth of Iran-Contra lies hidden in the conscience of the people who organized it, aided it, and went through with it. It started with good intentions, but soon was corrupted. Some may argue that we must
Japan\'s Culture Japan\'s Culture The Japanese culture dates back to 10,000 BC with many fascinating periods and events. They span from the days of the samurai and shogun, to 1945 when the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. Although a bomb would be a devastating blow for any country, rapid industrialization and aid from the United States brought Japan to the forefront of world affairs. In the following moments I will attempt to highlight some of the many unique characteristics that Japan has
King Arthur and Camelot King Arthur and Camelot The Arthurian Legends are a cycle of stories that has been shaped and passed down through over fourteen hundred years of English history. The legend of King Arthur tells of the adventures of an early king of Britain and the knights and ladies who made up his royal court at Camelot. It tells of a world filled with warriors armed with lance, sword, and armor. It speaks of jousts, tournaments, wizards, falconry, enchantresses, damsels in distress, war
Morse Telegraph Morse Telegraph In the beginning of the industrial age, cities were expanding and railroads were growing, but people couldn\'t get messages or news to other people fast enough. There were some electrical communications, but all were to slow or to complicating. Railroads were growing to fast, they were connecting cities to each other, and there needed some form of communication of some sort fast enough to past messages around. That is what Morse system of telegraphy did. In the ea
Mythology Course Comparitive Essay on Celtic and Germanic Cultures Mythology Course Comparitive Essay on Celtic and Germanic Cultures Most of our knowledge of early Celtic culture comes from Latin historians and from an extensive body of early Irish texts composed between 700 and 1000 AD. These include native law texts as well as heroic prose narratives and intricately crafted rhymed verse in hundreds of different meters. There are a few early texts from Celtic Wales as well, but paradoxically m
Medieval Warfare and Weaponry Medieval Warfare and Weaponry In the Middle Ages, the nobility of many cultures had large fortifications built to house a small town as well as themselves. These fortification were called castles, and they were so well defended that some historians have called it "the most formidable weapon of medieval warfare" (Hull 1). As one can imagine, conquering such a colossal structure cost much money, even more time, and many lives. There were three main ways to infiltrate
The Opium War The Opium War The Opium War, also called the Anglo-Chinese War, was the most humiliating defeat China ever suffered. In European history, it is perhaps the most sordid, base, and vicious event in European history, possibly, just possibly, overshadowed by the excesses of the Third Reich in the twentieth century. By the 1830\'s, the English had become the major drug-trafficking criminal organization in the world; very few drug cartels of the twentieth century can even touch the Engla
Postmodernism Postmodernism In "Foreign Bodies", although Hwee Hwee Tan explores what has been done before the blend of East and West, themes both light and serious the treatment has her own signature, and the political satire existing side by side with the Christian preaching is unique. The main effect that emerges is that of humour through the contradictions within each component and against each other, in the motley selection. Especially engaging is the expos on the cultural practices, i
Post-Colonialism-Trying to Regain Individuality Post-Colonialism-Trying to Regain Individuality Indeed, the stranger has unusual customs. The white man held the paper like a sacred thing. His hands shook, and we mistrusted him... For how many moons will the stranger be among us? (Vera 43) The stranger still lives among the people of Zimbabwe, though the colonial political authority has left. Yet I wonder if the town elder speaking in the above passage from Yvonne Vera\'s Nehanda would recognize
Role of Airplanes in World War II Role of Airplanes in World War II Chapter 1: War itself Flying started when the first people on earth saw a bird flying in the sky, we were amazed of seeing how freely they could move and to know that you could reach any place on earth with this ability, since then our dream had been follow them. People then tried to make this dream possible, the result in all cases was serious pain and failure after failure. A lot of time passed since the first time we dreamed
The Spanish Armada The Spanish Armada On May 30, 1588, they left the Port of Lisbon confident and assured of victory. If they would succeed in victory and conquer the enemy, then they would be the sole world power. If they win they will be victors of the biggest battle the world has ever seen. The Spanish Armada, the biggest invading fleet Spain had ever launched, left Lisbon toward England and headed for the unknown. During the 16th century Spain and England were colonizing the world and gainin
The Tomb of Tutankhamen The Tomb of Tutankhamen What does the tomb of tutankhamen and its contents show about the Egyptian concern for the afterlife? Tutakhamen\'s tomb, and the artifacts inside are an indication of the concern the Ancient Egyptians held for the after-life of their king. In 26th Nov. 1922, the English archaeologist Howard Carter opened the virtually intact tomb of a largely unknown pharaoh: Tutankhamen. This was the first, and to date the finest royal tomb found virtually intact
The Descendent of Homo Sapiens The Descendent of Homo Sapiens Since the beginning of human existence, humans have thrived through millions of years on earth, taking advantage of its great resources that were available freely for their personal use and survival. Toward the end of the 20th centry, these humans realized that they were utilizing large amounts of resources once thought to be an endless supply. With these uses come consequences, and these consequences have created problems and hinder
The History of the Victorian Age The History of the Victorian Age The Victorian era produced many eminent figures. Lytton Strachey was one of them. Born in 1880, Strachey was a British biographer and a critic who is credited of having revolutionized the art of writing biography. He opened a new era of biographical writing by adopting an irreverent attitude to the past, especially to the volumes of the Victorian biography. His book, Eminent Victorians, a wartime book composed of four miniature bi
The Spanish Armada The Spanish Armada The Spanish Armada was a great Spanish fleet sent by King Philip II of Spain in 1588 to invade England. It was ironically called "Invincible." During the late 1500s, Spain was the major international power over much of the known world (Goldman 1). Spains leader, King Philip II, wanted to conquer the Protestants from England and convert them to the Church of Rome. King Philip II also had hatred against Queen Elizabeth I, and wanted revenge because she had e
Viking Raids On England Viking Raids On England From 793 to 1066, England was terrorised by Viking warriors. These were people from Scandinavia, especially Danmark and Norway. Scandinavia at the time had a growing population and with inland areas inhospitable, the vikngs looked overseas for new territories and wealth. "In the year 793, the pagans from the north came to Britain like stinging hornets..." wrote an early Saxon chronicler about the first Viking raid on England. The Vikings had struck
WHY WAS RICHARD III OVERTHROWN? WHY WAS RICHARD III OVERTHROWN? Richard III reigned for two years, two months and one day. His reign was over run my rumour and even to this day people see Richard as a tyrant. One of the rumours that plagued Richard throughout his reign, was that he had murdered his two young nephews. (one of which was Edward V, who succeeded to the throne immediately after the death of Edward IV). Even in the days of Richards reign, murdering children was seen as an appalling t
Newspeak Newspeak Newspeak is a name given to the forecoming language of the totalitarian society portrayed in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. The language itself is a supposed creation by Big Brother, the fictitious political figure made up by the Inner Party - the government of Oceania, INGSOC. The language of Newspeak is the product of diminishing and reducing of words thought unnecessary in the existing language - the same as Modern English - by the government, resulting in a smaller vocabul
16th Century English Weapons 16th Century English Weapons During the 16th century England and much of Europe found itself in turmoil and in a constant state of war. The outbreak of fighting led to the invention and development of new weapons and the growth and change of weapons of old. The development of weapons was a trademark of the time, with a sort of renaissance, or re-birth in the field of weaponry (Miller). The technology was highlighted by the invention of gunpowder by the Chinese which
Category : History Language : English Book Review The Klan Unmasked by Stetson Kennedy Florida Atlantic University Press, Boca Raton 1954. Reviewed by Aamir Sehbai : June 24, 1996. The Ku Klux Klan has been the most organized of the many different White supremacy groups that came into being after the Civil War. The ill-reputed Knights of the Klan have been involved in countless incidents of human rights violations against blacks and other minority groups in America. Especially in the South, duri
History, Europe, France Louis XIV, The Sun King Louis XIV was only four years old when he succeeded his father to the French throne. Often uncared for, he nearly drowned because no one was watching him as he played near a pond. This began to shape in his young mind an early fear of God. Louis\' character was also shaped by the French Civil War. In this, the Paris Parlement rose against the crown. For five years, Louis would suffer fear, cold, hunger and other spirit-breaking events. He would nev
Marco Polo S.S. 9R Period 2 May 6, 1996 Marco Polo Marco Polo is one of the most well-known heroic travelers and traders around the world. In my paper I will discuss with you Marco Polos life, his travels, and his visit to China to see the great Khan. Marco Polo was born in c.1254 in Venice. He was a Venetian explorer and merchant whose account of his travels in Asia was the primary source for the European image of the Far East until the late 19th century. Marco\'s father, Niccol, and his uncl
Title: Militant Monks The Knights Templar, a military order of monks answerable only to the Pope himself, were founded in 1118. Their primary responsibility, at least initially, was to provide protection to Christians making pilgrimages to the Holy Land. They rose in power, both religious and secular, to become one of the richest and most powerful entities in Christendom. By the time of their disbandment in 1307, this highly secretive organization controlled vast wealth, a fleet of merchant ship
Why Napleon Was a Success Essay Napoleon Bonaparte, was born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica. He had 7 brothers and sisters. His original nationality was Corsican-Italian. He also despised the French. He thought they were oppressors of his native land. His father was a lawyer, and was also anti-French. One reason Napoleon may have been such a conqueror was he was raised in a family of radicals. In 1784 to 1785 Napoleon attended the Ecole Militaire in Paris. That was the place where he rec
American History New England and the Chesapeake region before 1700 Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by the people of English origin, by 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. The reasons for this distinct development were mostly based on the type on people from England who chose to settle in the two areas, and on the manner in which the areas were settled. New England was a refuge for religious separatists leaving England, while people w
"Was Colonial Culture Uniquely American?" "There were never, since the creation of the world, two cases exactly parallel." Lord Chesterfield, in a letter to his son, February 22nd, 1748. Colonial culture was uniquely American simply because of the unique factors associated with the development of the colonies. Never before had the conditions that tempered the colonists been seen. The unique blend of diverse environmental factors and peoples caused the development of a variety of cultures that we
History Pre-Civil War New Orleans New Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River. Most of the city is situated on the east bank, between the river and Lake Pontchartrain to the north. Because it was built on a great turn of the river, it is known as the Crescent City. New Orleans, with a population of 496,938 (1990 census), is the largest city in Louisiana and one of the principal cities of the South. It was established on the high ground nearest the mouth of the M
Subject: American History - The Regulators of North Carolina The Regulators of North Carolina: Outraged Opressors The history of colonial North Carolina is bombarded with frequent strife and turmoil. The people of North Carolina, because of a lack in supervision from the British monarchy, learned to possess an independent spirit. The colony remained isolated from the rest of the country because of several geographical conditions such as poor harbors, the abscence of navigable rivers, numerous sw
Events leading to the American Rev. During the late seventeen hundreds, many tumultuous events resulted in Colonial opposition to Great Britain. The conditions of rights of the colonists will slowly be changed as the constriction of the parliament becomes more and more intolerable. During the Seven Years\' War England was not only alarmed by the colonists\' insistence on trading with the enemy, but also with Boston merchants hiring James Otis inorder to protest the legality of the writs of assis
WPC S\'English 204(c)06 Mary Ann Gasior 4 March 1997 \'\'that there were many problems with European society. He expressed these views through satirizing one young mans adventure throughout the world. One of the elements of European society he disagreed with was the religion. Voltaire felt that there was hypocrisy and problems with both the religious beliefs and the religious figures of Europe. 44perfect country of Eldorados religion (pg. 67), by pointing out how unchrist
WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN AND HIS MARCH TO THE SEA William Tecumseh Sherman was born on May 8, 1820 in Lancaster, Ohio. He was educated at the U.S. Military Academy and later went on to become a Union General in the U.S. civil war. Sherman resigned from the army in 1853 and became a partner in a banking firm in San Francisco. He became the president of the Military College in Louisiana(now Louisiana state University) from 1859-1861. Sherman offered his services at the outbreak of the Civil War in
subject = History title = Sir William Wallace papers = When the king of Scotland died without an heir to the throne the nephew of the king also the king of England nicknamed Edward the Longshanks (Edward I) took the throne for himself and complete control of Scotland. William WallWhen the king of Scotland died without an heir to the throne the nephew of the king also the king of England nicknamed Edward the Longshanks (Edward I) took the throne for himself and complete control of Scotland. Willi
History Slavery original language:English The issue of slavery has been touched upon often in the course of history. The institution of slavery was addressed by French intellectuals during the Enlightenment. Later, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man, which declared the equality of all men. Issues were raised concerning the application of this statement to the French colonies in the West Indies, which used slaves to work the land. As th