History

Charles de Secondat, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu was born in 1689 to a French noble family. "His family tree could be traced 350 years, which in his view made its name neither good nor bad." (The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, p. 68) Montesquieu\'s views started to be shaped at a very early age. A beggar was chosen to be his godfather to remind him of his obligations to the poor. Montesquieu\'s education started at the age of 11 when he was sent to Juilly, a school maintained by the Co
George Orwell Research annon Eric Arthur Blair was born in 1903 at Motihari in British-occupied India. While growin up, he attended private schools in Sussex, Wellington and Eton. He worked at the Imperial Indian Police untill 1927 when he went to London to study the poverty stricken. He then moved to Paris where he wrote two lost novels. After he moved back to England he wrote Down and Out in Paris and London, Burmese Days, A Clergyman’s Daughter and Keep the Apidistra Flying. He published all
Cicero, was truly a man of the state. His writings also show us he was equally a man of philosophical temperament and affluence. Yet at times these two forces within Cicero clash and contradict with the early stoic teachings. Cicero gradually adopted the stoic lifestyle but not altogether entirely, and this is somewhat due to the fact of what it was like to be a roman of the time. The morals of everyday Rome conflicted with some of the stoic ideals that were set by early stoicism. Thus, Cicero c
Dr. Daniel J. Boorstin (1914- ) holds many honorable positions and has received numerous awards for his notable work. He is one of America\'s most eminent historians, the author of more than fifteen books and numerous articles on the history of the United States, as well as a creator of a television show. His editor-wife, Ruth Frankel Boorstin, a Wellesley graduate, has been his close collaborator. Born in Atlanta, Georgia, and raised in Oklahoma, he received his undergraduate degree with highes
Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas was born on July 19, 1834, at 8 rue Saint-George\'s in Paris. His father, Auguste, a banker, was French, and his mother, Célestine, an American from New Orleans. The family name "Degas" had been changed to "De Gas" by some family members in Naples and France in order to sound more aristocratic; the preposition indicated a name derived from land holdings. Degas went back to using the original spelling sometime after 1870, and that is how we spell his name today. He wa
By the time Hadrian\'s contributions to his country had succeeded, and death was near; he was the most hated man in Rome. However, throughout his reign, he was regarded as a noble leader. "The Roman emperor Hadrian exercised a profound organizational influence on the Greco-Roman world. He worked successfully toward the codification of Roman law and the strengthening of imperial border defenses (Eadie 8)." Emperor Hadrian made many important contributions to Roman culture, and he was also known a
George Wallace annon Former Gov. George C. Wallace of Alabama, who built his political career on segregation and spent a tormented retirement arguing that he was not a racist in his heart, died Sunday night at Jackson Hospital in Montgomery. He was 79 and lived in Montgomery, Ala. Wallace died of respiratory and cardiac arrest at 9:49 p.m., said Dana Beyerly, a spokeswoman for Jackson Hospital in Montgomery. Wallace had been in declining health since being shot in his 1972 presidential campaign
Do you know who was the general for the Second Battle of Bull Run? Everyone knows what the Second Battle of Bull Run is but who was the general? Some people even know that the North won that battle. Most people do not know that General George Meade defeated General Lee at that battle. General George Mead accomplished much during wartime. General George Meade had many accomplishments during wartime. First of all, he defeated General Lee at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Why would not General Mead
Herbert George Wells English author and political philosopher, most famous for his science-fantasy novels with their prophetic depictions of the triumphs of technology as well as the horrors of 20th-century warfare. Wells was born September 21, 1866, in Bromley, Kent, and educated at the Normal School of Science in London, to which he won a scholarship. He worked as a draper\'s apprentice, bookkeeper, tutor, and journalist until 1895, when he became a full- time writer. Wells\'s 10-year relation
Henry Ford was a genius in many aspects of our everyday life. He changed industry, production, and everybody\'s lifestyle. Many people know about him inventing some of the first automobiles, but what came out of it for America was a new encouragement for technology and an easier lifestyle for the average American. Also Henry Ford has changed the perspective of industries around the world. His invention of the assembly line and his five-dollar a day wage for the average worker brought about a tot
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler 1.The Beginning At half past six on the evening of April 20th, 1889 a child was born in the small town of Branau, Austria. The name of the child was Adolf Hitler. He was the son a Customs official Alois Hitler, and his third wife Klara. As a young boy Adolf attendated church regulary and sang in the local choir. One day he carved a symbol into the bench which resembled the Swastika he later used as the symbol of the Nazi party. He was a pretty good student. He received
Comparing Hitler and Stalin in their rise to power Comparing Hitler and Stalin in their rise to power During the period leading up to World War II, there were two men who were on opposing sides, the men were Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin. These men were each triumphant in their rise to power in their countries and they were very comparable in the ways that they succeeded. Their success was mostly attributed to their new ideas and their politics. Although Hitler and Stalin hated each other, the
John F. Kennedy - A thousand days John F. Kennedy - A thousand days John F. Kennedy was destined to be president of the United States. He would rather mold history than let history mold itself. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, MA in 1917. His mother was Irish and his father was a graduate of Harvard University and had entered the business world. After their arrival as immigrants, John\'s grandparents entered politics. John had attended four different schools before attending Harvard. He first
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson is remembered in history not only for the offices he held, but also for his belief in the natural rights of man as expressed in the Declaration of Independence and his faith in the people\'s ability to govern themselves. He left an impact on his times equaled by few others in American history. Born on April 13, 1743, Jefferson was the third child in the family and grew up with six sisters and one brother. Though he opposed slavery, his family ha
Al Capone Al Capone Al Capone is America\'s best known gangster and the single greatest symbol of the collapse of law and order in the United States during the 1920s Prohibition era. Capone had a leading role in the illegal activities that lent Chicago its reputation as a lawless city. Capone was born on January 17, 1899, in Brooklyn, New York. Baptized "Alphonsus Capone," he grew up in a rough neighborhood and was a member of two "kid gangs," the Brooklyn Rippers and the Forty Thieves Juniors.
Archimedes Archimedes Few certain details remain about the life of antiquity’s greatest mathematician, Archimedes. We know he was born in 287 B.C.E. around Syracuse from a report about 1400 years after the fact. Archimedes tells about his father, Pheidias, in his book The Sandreckoner. Pheidias was an astronomer, who was famous for being the author of a treatise on the diameters of the sun and the moon. Historians speculate that Pheidias’ profession explains why Archimedes chose his career. Some
Augustus Caesar Augustus Caesar The year 509 BC Rome finally became a Republic and thus started the Roman empire. As Rome rose to power they went through many wars and many conflicts between the plebeians and patricians. The republic was made out of 3 groups, the consuls which were 2 men elected from the senate, the senate which was made of 300 patricians, and the assembly made from plebeians. Many years later Rome started to reject the republic when it went into a series of civil wars. 3 men fo
Charles Dickens Charles Dickens INTRODUCTION This report will talk about the life of a famous author, Charles Dickens. It will tell you about his early, middle, and later years of his life. It will also talk about one of his great works of literature. In conclusion, this report will show a comparison of his work to his life. EARLY LIFE Charles Dickens was born at Landport, in Portsea, on February 7, 1812. His father was a clerk in the Navy Pay-Office, and was temporarily on duty in the neighborh
Henry Ford Henry Ford Henry Ford was a genius in many aspects of our everyday life. He changed industry, production, and everybody\'s lifestyle. Many people know about him inventing some of the first automobiles, but what came out of it for America was a new encouragement for technology and an easier lifestyle for the average American. Also Henry Ford has changed the perspective of industries around the world. His invention of the assembly line and his five-dollar a day wage for the average work
Julius Caesar Julius Caesar Julius Caesar was a strong leader for the Romans who changed the course of the history of the Greco - Roman world decisively and irreversibly. With his courage and strength he created a strong empire . What happened during his early political career? How did he become such a strong dictator of the Roman Empire? What events led up to the making of the first triumvirate? How did he rise over the other two in the triumvirate and why did he choose to take over? What happe
Julius Caesar Julius Caesar A baby was born on July 12 or 13 of 100 BC in Rome. Little did the proud parents of this baby know that he would rule most of the known world. This baby was born to the name of Gaius, his personal name, Julius was the name of his family\'s clan and the name of his family was Caesar meaning hairy. Caesar was such an amazing man that many people couldn\'t believe that he was born the same way as them. Over time stories have arisen about Caesar\'s birth. One story says t
Julius Caesar Julius Caesar Julius Caesar was born on the thirteenth day of the month Quintilis in the year of 100 BC. His full name was Gaius Julius Caesar, the same as his father’s. Gaius was his given name and Julius was his surname. He was a strong political and military leader who changed the history of the Greco-Roman world. This paper will answer the following questions: What happened during his early political career? How did he become a strong dictator of the Roman Empire? What events l
Karl Marx Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in the city of Trier in Prussia, now, Germany. He was one of seven children of Jewish Parents. His father was fairly liberal, taking part in demonstrations for a constitution for Prussia and reading such authors as Voltaire and Kant, known for their social commentary. His mother, Henrietta, was originally from Holland and never became a German at heart, not even learning to speak the language properly. Shortly before Karl Marx was b
Karl Marx Karl Marx Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way in which people think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise Above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class. Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set the Basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people think Today, and because of him people are mor
Marco Polo Marco Polo Marco Polo is one of the most well-known heroic travelers and traders around the world. In my paper I will discuss with you Marco Polo\'s life, his travels, and his visit to China to see the great Khan. Marco Polo was born in c.1254 in Venice. He was a Venetian explorer and merchant whose account of his travels in Asia was the primary source for the European image of the Far East until the late 19th century. Marco\'s father, Niccolò, and his uncle Maffeo had traveled to Chi
Michelangelo Michelangelo Michelangelo was pessimistic in his poetry and an optimist in his artwork. Michelangelo\'s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it\'s natural state. Michelangelo\'s poetry was pessimistic in his response to Strazzi even though he was complementing him. Michelangelo\'s sculpture brought out his optimism. Michelangelo was optimistic in completing The Tomb of Pope Julius II and persevered through it\'s many revisions trying to complete his
Millard Fillmore Millard Fillmore Fillmore, Millard (1800-1874), 13th president of the United States (1850-1853) and the second vice president to finish the term of a deceased president. He succeeded Zachary Taylor at a critical moment in United States history. The Mexican War (1846-1848) had renewed the conflict between the Northern and Southern states over slavery, since it had added new territories to the United States. The debate over whether these territories should be admitted as free or s
Oprah Winfrey Oprah Winfrey "The Oprah Winfrey Show". Her show is known to not only all over the United States, but also known to all around the world. Today she is known as the America\'s most famous and powerful woman. Every woman in America envies her great fortune and her intelligence. But Oprah insists that she is not special or gifted. She had overcome many hurdles and reached to the top of America\'s national T.V host. What makes her so popular and most loved entertainer in the United Sta
Phillis Wheatley Phillis Wheatley Phillis Wheatley, one of America’s most profound writers, has contributed greatly to American literature, not only as a writer, but as an African American woman, who has influenced many African Americans by enriching their knowledge of and exposure to their Negro heritage and Negro literature. As one of America’s most renown writers, Wheatley, said to be the mother of African American Literature, is best known for her sympathetic portrayals of African American t
Walter Whitman Walter Whitman Through the history of the United States there have been a countless numbers of poets. With them came an equal number of writing styles. Certainly one of the most unique poets to write life\'s story through his own view of the world and with the ambition to do it was Walter Whitman. Greatly criticized by many readers of his work, Whitman was not a man to be deterred. Soon he would show the world that he had a voice, and that it spoke with a poet\'s words. Afoot and
Terry Fox Terry Fox In Canadian history there are many famous people. In my mind one really stands out among the rest. His name is Terry Fox and he is one of the greatest athlete to run on the face of this planet. Terry discovered he had cancer and then decided to run across Canada. He was a brave man who would take what the world through at him. Running across Canada was his way to show the world that he was not going out with out a fight. Terry Fox was born in Winnipeg Manitoba on July 28 1958
The Life of Ludwig Van Beethoven The Life of Ludwig Van Beethoven The rise of Ludwig van Beethoven into the ranks of history\'s greatest composers was parallelled by and in some ways a consequence of his own personal tragedy and despair. Beginning in the late 1790\'s, the increasing buzzing and humming in his ears sent Beethoven into a panic, searching for a cure from doctor to doctor. By October 1802 he had written the Heiligenstadt Testament confessing the certainty of his growing deafness, hi
The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper (1789 - 1851) The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper (1789 - 1851) Type of Work: Historical romance Setting Upper New York region; 1757 Principal Characters Hawkeye (Natty Bumppo), , a skilled white scout and frontiersman Chingachgook, , Hawkeye\'s lifelong Mohican (Delaware) friend Uncas, , Chingachgook\'s son and last heir to the title of chief of the Mohican tribe Major Duncan Heyward, , Hawkeye\'s Scottish soldier-friend David Gain
The Orgin of the Species by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) The Orgin of the Species by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Type of Work: Natural history text First Published 1859 Complete Title The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection , or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life Book Historical Commentary Charles Robert Darwin, the grandson of the English scientist Erasmus Darwin, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and prepared for the ministry at Cambridge. Followi
A Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens (1812-1870) A Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens (1812-1870) Type of Work: Historical fiction Setting London and Paris during the French Revolution (1789-1799) Principal Characters Dr. Manette, a French physician, wrongfully imprisoned for 18 years Lucie Manette, his daughter Charles Darnay, a former French aristocrat who has repudiated his title and left France to live in England Jarvis Lorry, the able representative of Tellson Co., a banking house Sydney Ca
Peer Gynt by Henrik Ibsen (1828 - 1906) Peer Gynt by Henrik Ibsen (1828 - 1906) Type of Work: Poetic drama Setting Norway, Morocco and Egypt; nineteenth century Principal Characters Peer Gynt, a non-heroic Norwegian farm boy Aase, his mother Solveighis faithful love The Troll King The Button Molder, a "judge" of humanity Story Overveiw "Peer, you\'re lying!" cried Aase to her son - and he was lying. He had been weaving a fantastic tale of a ride he\'d taken on a runaway reindeer when Aase realiz
The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1532) The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1532) Type of Work: Political and philosophical discourse Book Overveiw "It is customary for those who wish to gain the favour of a prince to endeavour to do so by offering him gifts of those things which they hold most precious." To Machiavelli, his own most precious possession was the "knowledge of great men," which he acquired through experience and "constant study." He offered his guiding gift of knowledge
Das Kapital by Karl Marx (1818 - 1883) Das Kapital by Karl Marx (1818 - 1883) Commentary In the mid-nineteenth century, when Karl Marx wrote Das Kapital - an exhaustive work of more than one thousand pages - factory conditions were often intolerable, wages were at best barely adequate, and there were few groups or governments who advocated reform. Therefore, Marx took it upon himself to define "Capitalism,,, explain and condemn Capitalist methods, predict the inevitable doom of the system, and i
The Crucible Arthur Miller The Crucible Arthur Miller Introduction Arthur Miller was an American playwright who was born in 1915. He grew up in New York to a Jewish family. He graduated from the University of Michigan in 1938 where he began to distinguish himself as a playwright. His first plays were Honors at Dawn (1936) and No Villain (1937) which won the University of Michigan Hopwood Awards. His Death of a Salesman won the Pulitzer prize in 1949. Miller wrote The Crucible in 1953 during the
Utopia by Thomas More (1478-1535) Utopia by Thomas More (1478-1535) Type of Work: Social and philosophical commentary Setting Antwerp; early sixteenth century Principal Characters Sir Thomas More, emissary for Henry VIII Peter Giles, More\'s friend Raphael Hythloday, world traveler and witness to Utopia Book Overveiw Thomas More toured Antwerp on a diplomatic mission for his king, Henry VIII. There, More\'s friend, Peter Giles, introduced the young ambassador to Raphael Hythloday, an educated sa
Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616) Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616) Type of Work: Tragic drama Setting Rome,- 44 B.C Principal Characters Julius Caesar, popular Roman general and statesman Brutus, a prominent and devout Roman, and close friend to Caesar Cassius, a conspiring enemy of Caesar Marcus Antonius, Caesar\'s supporter, a brilliant politician Story Overveiw Rome was in an uproar. General Julius Caesar had just returned after having defeated his rival, Po
Walden by Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862) Walden by Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862) Type of Work: Natural history essay Setting Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts; 1845 to 1847 Journal Overveiw (The summer of 1845 found Henry David Thoreau living in a rude shack on the banks of Walden Pond. The actual property was owned by Ralph Waldo Emerson, the great American philosopher. Emerson had earlier published the treatise entitled "Nature," and the young Thoreau was profoundly affected by its ca
The Prince and the Pauper Mark Twain (1835-1910) The Prince and the Pauper Mark Twain (1835-1910) Type of Work: Social and political satire Setting England, 1547 Principal Characters Edward Tudor-young Prince of Wales Tom Canty-a pauper boy Miles Hendon-a kindhearted noblemen Story Overview A boy was born on an autumm afternoon to a poverty-stricken Canty family. With the state of London\'s sixteenth-century economy staring them in the face, the family did not want the child. On the same day ano
Ben-Hur: A Tale of Christ by Lew Wallace (1827 - 1905) Ben-Hur: A Tale of Christ by Lew Wallace (1827 - 1905) Type of Work: Historical romantic fiction Setting Judea and Rome; during the time of Jesus Christ Principal Characters Judah Bur-Hur, a Jew Ben-Hur\'s mother and sister Tirzah Messala, a Roman citizen; Judah\'s childhood friend, and later hated enemy Arrius, a Roman commander Simonides, an aged Hur servant Mallach, Simonides\' servant Story Overveiw (The tale begins with an account of Je
Human relationships have always been dynamic. Change and adaptability have gone hand in hand with the passage of time for human society. Systems have been developed to regulate, direct and control the resources of this society. The systems are referred to as governments and the resources as the populace or inhabitants and forces of production. A government must be dynamic in its nature reflecting the change in society. At times these systems have resisted the necessity to adapt with its componen
As many Federal departments and agencies lurch into an era of running without funds, the leaders of both parties of Congress are spending less and less time searching for a compromise to balance the budget, and more and more time deciding how to use it to their advantage on the campaign trail. Meanwhile money is easily borrowed to pay for government overhead. In an attempt to change this, on June 29, Congress voted in favor of HConRes67 that called for a 7 year plan to balance the Federal Budget
Managing Global Human Resources MANAGING GLOBAL HUMAN RESOURCES The environment in which business competes is rapidly becoming globalized. More and more companies are entering international markets by exporting their products overseas, building plants in other countries, and entering into alliances with foreign companies. Global competition is driving changes in organizations throughout the world. Companies are attempting to gain a competitive advantage, which can be provided by international ex
Skoda Auto Skoda Auto The story of Skoda is one of struggle and success. Skoda enjoys a century-long history of motor vehicle manufacturing in a small town in the Czech Republic, about sixty kilometers outside the cultural and tourist center of Prague. Despite early achievements, times became much harder during the former socialist era. The physical plant fell into disrepair and quality declined. However, this tale in one of transformation, and Skoda has once again become very successful in a jo
Wal-mart Economics Wal-mart Economics Sam Walton, a leader with an innovative vision, started his own company and made it into the leader in discount retailing that it is today. Through his savvy, and sometimes unusual, business practices, he and his associates led the company forward for thirty years. Today, four years after his death, the company is still growing steadily. Wal-Mart executives continue to rely on many of the traditional goals and philosophies that Sam\'s legacy left behind, whi
Zorlu Holding And Vestel Electronics Zorlu Holding The Vision Of The Company Mehmet Zorlu, established their Group\'s first company in the early 1950s, he laid the ground rules for the Zorlu Group\'s subsequent growth: integrity, perseverance’ and unconditional commitment to quality. Integrity is the Group\'s cornerstone value and they expect it to govern every aspect of their business. Hard work and perseverance are essential for the day-to-day success of their enterprises as they are for the u