History

Descartes Annonymous A paper delivered at the CALIFORNIA JOYCE conference (6/30/93) To quote the opening of Norbert Wiener\'s address on Cybernetics to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in March of 1950, The word cybernetics has been taken from the Greek word kubernitiz (ky-ber-NEE-tis) meaning steersman. It has been invented because there is not in the literature any adequate term describing the general study of communication and the related study of control in both machines and in livi
Herman Melville I. Biographical Insights A. The culture this great author was a part of was the time in American history where inspiring works of literature began to emerge. It was also a time when American writers had not completely separated its literary heritage from Europe, partly because there were successful literary genius’ flourishing there. B. Herman Melville was born on August 1, 1819, he was the son of Allan and Maria Melville. During Herman’s childhood he lived in the "good" neighbor
The Crucible The witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts in the early sixteen hundreds was a time of uneasiness and suspicion. Anyone could easily turn in his or her neighbor on the ground of witchcraft. Someone could merely say their neighbor\'s spirit had attacked them during the night, which no man can prove. Nevertheless, as a God-fearing community, they could not think of denying the evidence, because to deny the existence of Evil is to deny the existence of Goodness, which is God. The most im
Free to Choose Annonymous [All page references and quotations from the Meditations are taken from the 1995 Everyman edition] In the Meditations, Descartes embarks upon what Bernard Williams has called the project of \'Pure Enquiry\' to discover certain, indubitable foundations for knowledge. By subjecting everything to doubt Descartes hoped to discover whatever was immune to it. In order to best understand how and why Descartes builds his epistemological system up from his foundations in the way
Analysis of Similes in the Illiad In the Iliad, Homer finds a great tool in the simile. Just by opening the book in a random place the reader is undoubtedly faced with one, or within a few pages. Homer seems to use everyday activities, at least for the audience, his fellow Greeks, in these similes nearly exclusively. When one is confronted with a situation that is familiar, one is more likely to put aside contemplating the topic and simply inject those known feelings. This would definitely be an
The Scarlet Letter Adultery, betrayal, promiscuity, subterfuge, and intrigue, all of which would make an excellent coming attraction on the Hollywood scene and probably a pretty good book. Add Puritan ideals and writing styles, making it long, drawn out, tedious, wearisome, sleep inducing, insipidly asinine, and the end result is The Scarlet Letter. Despite all these things it is considered a classic and was a statement of the era. The Scarlet Letter is a wonderful and not so traditional example
Canterbury Tales - Medieval Church In discussing Chaucer\'s collection of stories called The Canterbury Tales, an interesting picture or illustration of the Medieval Christian Church is presented. However, while people demanded more voice in the affairs of government, the church became corrupt -- this corruption also led to a more crooked society. Nevertheless, there is no such thing as just church history; This is because the church can never be studied in isolation, simply because it has alway
Canterbury Tales - The Knight Geoffrey Chaucer\'s Canterbury Tales, written in approximately 1385, is a collection of twenty-four stories ostensibly told by various people who are going on a religious pilgrimage to Canterbury Cathedral from London, England. Prior to the actual tales, however, Chaucer offers the reader a glimpse of fourteenth century life by way of what he refers to as a General Prologue. In this prologue, Chaucer introduces all of the characters who are involved in this imaginar
Summary of Orwell\'s 1984 Summary Chapter 1 and 2 We are introduced to Winston Smith the main character of the story. Works at Ministry of truth. Ministry of truth is one of four government buildings in destroyed London, the main city of Airstrip One, a province of Oceania. Year is 1984 and three contries are at war, Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia. Oceania is run by the party whose leader is Big Brother. Winston is sick of his life in the ruined city and decides to keep a diary. This is against t
Abstractions in Power-Writing There are many abstractions in the Declaration of Independence. These abstractions such as: rights, freedom, liberty and happiness have become the foundations of American society and have helped to shape the "American Identity." Power, another abstraction that reoccurs in all the major parts of the Declaration of Independence plays an equally important role in shaping "America identity." One forgets the abstraction of power, because it appears in relation to other i
The Grapes of Wrath - Joads Journey Through out history man has made many journeys, far and wide. Moses\'s great march through the Red Sea and Columbus\'s transversing the Atlantic are only, but a few of mans great voyages. Even today, great journeys are being made. Terry Fox\'s run across Canada while having cancer is one of these such journeys. In every one of these instances people have had to rise above themselves and over come emence odds, similar to a salmon swimming up stream to fullfill
The Grapes of Wrath John Steinbeck\'s novel, The Grapes of Wrath has left much specifically untold about the authors true intentions on this book. His epic chronicle has been described as being "Written with passionate conviction" (Dorothy Parker). This passionate conviction has led John Steinbeck into mastering bold dramatization. His skills at the art of dramatization in literature was not solely used in The Grapes of Wrath, but also used in another of his twisted and possibly controversial wo
Narrative Voices in Huck Finn Huckleberry Finn provides the narrative voice of Mark Twain’s novel, and his honest voice combined with his personal vulnerabilities reveal the different levels of the Grangerfords’ world. Huck is without a family: neither the drunken attention of Pap nor the pious ministrations of Widow Douglas were desirable allegiance. He stumbles upon the Grangerfords in darkness, lost from Jim and the raft. The family, after some initial cross-examination, welcomes, feeds and r
Shakespeare - Man or Myth? Was the man we know as Shakespeare really the author of the "Shakespearean Works"? We know little about the man called Shakespeare, Did he really write the plays, or is he just a man that got confused within history? (Sobran 44) There is not even a correct spelling of this mans name, Some of the spellings include Shakspere, Shakespeare, And Shaxpere. Shakespeare, Is it the man, Or is it another? (Hayes 1D) Shakespeare is both fact and fiction, he was no concern until n
Edgar Allan Poe Many authors have made great contributions to the world of literature. Mark Twain introduced Americans to life on the Mississippi. Thomas Hardy wrote on his pessimistic views of the Victorian Age. Another author that influenced literature is Edgar Allan Poe. Poe is known as the father of the American short story and father of the detective story. To understand the literary contributions of Edgar Allan Poe, one must look at his early life, his literary life, and a summary of two o
Great Gatsby Annonymous Essay for English Poetry Class Every poem has an element of God in it\'s words. Just as God spoke through the writings of Peter or Matthew, elements of His word are in the beautiful themes in poetry. In this essay, I will compare the poems of William Blake and William Wordsworth with the written Word of God, in five poems: The Lamb, The Chimney Sweeper, The Tyger, My Heart Leaps Up, and London 1802. My aim is to show that the writings of great poets are truly the words of
Literature - a Mirror of Society The literature of a country is affected and influenced by how the people of that country live. This paper will prove that The French Revolution greatly influenced 19th Century French Romanticism. First, the cultural values of the revolution will be identified. Then, the different aspects of Romanticism will be presented. The cultural values of The French Revolution and Romanticism will then be linked. Finally, literary examples will be shown to support this conne
Influence of Realism on Literature After World War I, American people and the authors among them were left disillusioned by the effects that war had on their society. America needed a literature that would explain what had happened and what was happening to their society. American writers turned to what is now known as modernism. The influence of 19th Century realism and naturalism and their truthful representation of American life and people was evident in post World War I modernism. This paper
Role of Women in Canterbury Tales The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer serves as a moral manual for the 1300’s and years after. Through the faults of both men and woman, he shows in each persons story what is right and wrong and how one should live. Under the surface, however, lies a jaded look and woman and how they cause for the downfall of men. "The Knight’s Tale" is one of chivalry and upstanding moral behavior. However, beneath the surface lies the theme of the evil nature of women. Emi
The Catcher in the rye Aquanat213@aol.com In the novel, The Catcher in the Rye, by J.D. Salinger, Holden attempts, whether he is conscious of it or not, to save certain characters from "falling" into what he sees as the corrupt world of adulthood. He does this in his thoughts as well as in his real actions. An example of this is seen when Holden tries to rescue all children from "falling". The most important child he attempts to save is his sister Phoebe. Last and most crucial, Holden tries to s
Analytical Discussion of "Cold Mountain" by Charles Frazier browneyedgirl The Journey is the Destination The story of Cold Mountain is of a war and adventure across the mountainous terrain, but, most of all it is a love story. Before the blossoming love is torn by the separation of war, Ada and Inman venture into the woods together to say their goodbyes. There Inman recites to Ada a story told to him by an Indian woman. At the end of the story, Ada had nothing but a satirical remark regarding th
The Writers of the Enlightenment Sena The Age of Enlightenment was a period, or movement during the 18th centruy that preceded the Fench Revolution. It is a hrase that refers to the trends in thoughts and letters that emitted from Europe and the American colonies during that centruy. It is sometimes referred to as The Age of Reason. Whereas religion had dominated the reign of the puritans, politics and rationalism governed the ideas of the literary leaders of this new age. Perhaps the most impor
Guy Debord Annonymous Characters in books can reveal the author feeling toward the world. In The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald suggested the moral decline of the period in America history through the interpersonal relationships among his characters. The book indicates the worthlessness of materialism, the futile quest of Myrtle and Gatsby, and how America\'s moral values had diminished. Despite his newly acquired fortune, Gatsby\'s monitory means could not afford his only true wish, therefore he canno
The History of Graphic Arts/Design Chris Hayes (chayes27@msn.com Graphic design or graphic arts often comes in many forms, from the writing on this paper to the annoying television commercials millions of people view everyday. Despite the very popular usage of graphic design, many people, perhaps the majority of people do not understand or realize when they are experiencing the work of a graphic designer. The work of a graphic artist can be seen anywhere a person looks in any room, in any househ
California Surf Culture Joe Reid Joe Reid English 101 California Surf Culture The manufactured image of health and happiness that became synonymous with the California Lifestyle has over the years become more refined, molded into a specific state of existence that is, by definition, a contradiction placed at the ocean\'s edge. The exploitation of this natural condition has been traced from the innocent origins of early local surf industry into the contemporary realm of multi million dollar publi
The Myth of the True Image (The Chrysalids) Zycer The Myth of the True Image One of the main ideas that John Wyndham criticizes in The Chrysalids is the notion of "the true image". He shows the reader how fanatical Joseph Strorm and most of the inhabitants of Waknuk are in religious views and what consequences these views entail. Even nowadays, we can still find such ideas with ease, and many of the outcomes that appear in the book have happened at point in history. Most religions claim that the
Gulliver\'s Travels-Satire Jhova Tyler, 1 In 1726, Jonathan Swift published a book for English readers. Primarily, however, Gullivers Travels is a work of satire. Gulliver is neither a fully developed character nor even an altogether distinguishable persona; rather, he is a satiric device enabling Swift to score satirical points (Rodino 124). Indeed, whereas the work begins with more specific satire, attacking perhaps one political machine or aimed at one particular custom in each instance, i
Gullivers travels-satire w/bibliography Jhova Tyler, 1 In 1726, Jonathan Swift published a book for English readers. Primarily, however, Gullivers Travels is a work of satire. Gulliver is neither a fully developed character nor even an altogether distinguishable persona; rather, he is a satiric device enabling Swift to score satirical points (Rodino 124). Indeed, whereas the work begins with more specific satire, attacking perhaps one political machine or aimed at one particular custom in eac
Hamlet Brutal Truth Annonymous For decades, Guy Debord’s The Society of the Spectacle was only available in English in a so-called pirate edition published by Black Red, and its informative—perhaps essential—critique of modern society languished in the sort of obscurity familiar to political radicals and the avant-garde. Originally published in France in 1967, it rarely receives more than passing mention in some of the fields most heavily influenced by its ideas—media studies, social theory, eco
Othello discuss a theme that is relevant for a modern audience a_chizz@hotmail.com English Othello Charlie Anderson Discuss a theme/s in the play that relate to modern society. Through history there are endless cases of empires with a huge amount of internal and external control falling sacrifice to corruption. There is a saying that the modern world has been accustomed to "power corrupts". In Othello one of the key themes is control and how this causes corruption. We see the shift in control th
call joe bon bon Alfred Hitchcock Alfred Hitchcock As a cinematographer, I see Alfred Hitchcock as one of the most influential people in the history of the silver screen. My synopsis of his films, however, will be through the eyes of a young man that has witnessed tragedy. I could sit and rant and rave about how Hitchcock was a great director, his films were awesome, etc., but I\'ll spare you of that. I would much rather discuss the attack, but since I must write this paper about his cinema wor
Write a unified essay about the way each author portrayed the devil in "The Devil and Tom Walker" and "The Devil and Daniel Webster". Use examples from each to establish the controlling idea about how the authors developed the character. Show how each author uses specific literary techniques to develop the character. Red 3 "The Devil and Tom Walker" and "The Devil and Daniel Webster" might share similar titles, but their portrayal of the devil is completely different from the other. In fact, the
Immortal Poetry Annonymous Christopher Marlowe: what did he contribute to English literature and how is his writing reflective of the style of the times? Christopher Marlowe contributed greatly to English literature. He developed a new metre which has become one of the most popular in English literary history, and he revitalised a dying form of English drama. His short life was apparently violent and the m an himself was supposedly of a volatile temperament, yet he managed to write some of the m
Sun Also rises Annonymous An Essay Study of Poetry and A Poet\'s Ability to Forsee Sun Also rises Annonymous An Essay Study of Poetry and A Poet\'s Ability to Forsee The Future The world is changing and evolving at an astounding rate. Within the last one hundred years, the Western community has seen advances in technology and medicine that has improved the lifestyles and longevity of almost every individual. Within the last two hundred years, we have seen two World Wars, and countless disputes o
To Kill A Mockingbird Annonymous The term ³war² is one that most competent English speaking people are familiar with, and it is one that most of those same people could attempt to define. The only problem lies in the definition that one would receive. War is so complex and multifaceted that it is truly understood by only a few people. Wars date far back into history, and they have been fought for more reasons than could be listed. It seems strange, but untimalely, they are fought for one reason.
Animal Farm Annonymous George Orwell\'s novel Animal Farm does an excellent job of drawing parallels from the situation leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1917. Animal Farm is a satire that uses its characters to symbolize leaders of the Russian Revolution. The animals of Manor Farm , the setting of this novel, which symbolizes Russia, overthrow their human master after years of mistreatment. Led by the pigs, the farm animals continue to do their work, only with more pride, knowing that the
The Life of Charles Dickens INTRODUCTION This report will talk about the life of a famous author, Charles Dickens. It will tell you about his early, middle, and later years of his life. It will also talk about one of his great works of literature. In conclusion, this report will show a comparison of his work to his life. EARLY LIFE Charles Dickens was born at Landport, in Portsea, on February 7, 1812. His father was a clerk in the Navy Pay-Office, and was temporarily on duty in the neighborhood
Intolerance Within the Novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn The entire plot of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is rooted on intolerance between different social groups. Without prejudice and intolerance The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn would not have any of the antagonism or intercourse that makes the recital interesting. The prejudice and intolerance found in the book are the characteristics that make The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn great. The author of The Adventures of Huckleberry
Charlotte Bronte\'s Jane Eyre Nature in Jane Eyre Charlotte Bronte makes use of nature imagery throughout "Jane Eyre," and comments on both the human relationship with the outdoors and human nature. The Oxford Reference Dictionary defines "nature" as "1. the phenomena of the physical world as a whole . . . 2. a thing\'s essential qualities; a person\'s or animal\'s innate character . . . 4. vital force, functions, or needs." We will see how "Jane Eyre" comments on all of these. Several natural t
Ronald Schaffer’s America in the Great War gives new insights into World War I. The book gave historical accounts about the war that other books negated to included. The thesis that Schaffer tries to prove that the Great War was the start of the American welfare state and the beginning of "big" government. America in the Great War was structured in chronological order of the war, from America’s mobilization to the actual fighting. What the book did not include is a detail account of the fighting
Animal Farm Animal Farm Eric Arthur Blair, better known by his psuedonym George Orwell, is an English author commonly known to write about political issues. Orwell has been highly acclaimed and criticized for his novels, including one of his most famous, Animal Farm. In a satirical form, George Orwell uses personified farm animals to express his views on stalinism in the novel Animal Farm. Throughout Orwell\'s early novels, democratic socialism kept the author from total despair of all humans(Gr
Animal Farm Animal Farm George Orwell\'s Animal Farm is a political satire of a totalitarian society ruled by a mighty dictatorship, in all probability an allegory for the events surrounding the Russian Revolution of 1917. The animals of "Manor Farm" overthrow their human master after a long history of mistreatment. Led by the pigs, the farm animals continue to do their work, only with more pride, knowing that they are working for themselves, as opposed to working for humans. Little by little, t
Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution have many similarities and ideas. The characters, settings, and the plots are the same. In addition Animal Farm is a satire and allegory of the Russian Revolution, George Orwell meant for it to be that way. My essay will cover the comparison between Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution. Also it will explain why this novel is a satire and allegory to the Revolution. First of all
Animal Farm as Animal Satire Let American Consumer Counseling Help you Get Out of Debt! Animal Farm as Animal Satire This study aims to determine that George Orwell\'s Animal Farm is a political satire which was written to criticise totalitarian regimes and particularly Stalin\'s practices in Russia. In order to provide background information that would reveal causes led Orwell to write Animal Farm, Chapter one is devoted to a brief summary of the progress of author\'s life and significant event
Animalism vs Marxism Animalism vs Marxism Characters, items, and events found in George Orwells book, Animal Farm, can be compared to similar characters, items, and events found in Marxism and the 1917 Russian Revolution. This comparison will be shown by using the symbolism that is in the book with similarities found in the Russian Revolution. Old Major was a prized-boar that belonged to Farmer Jones. The fact that Old Major is himself a boar was to signify that radical change and revolution are
Historical Background to Animal Farm Historical Background to Animal Farm Karl Marx was a German scholar who lived in the nineteenth century. He spent most of his life studying, thinking and writing about history and economics. A many years of study, much of it spent in England, he believed that he understood more deeply than anyone who had ever lived before him why there is injustice in the world. He said that all injustice and inequality is a result of one underlying conflict in society. He ca
Character Sketch of Chaucer\'s Knight Character Sketch of Chaucer\'s Knight Geoffrey Chaucer\'s Canterbury Tales, written in approximately 1385, is a collection of twenty-four stories ostensibly told by various people who are going on a religious pilgrimage to Canterbury Cathedral from London, England. Prior to the actual tales, however, Chaucer offers the reader a glimpse of fourteenth century life by way of what he refers to as a General Prologue. In this prologue, Chaucer introduces all of th
Heart of Darkness: Ignorance and Racism Heart of Darkness: Ignorance and Racism Joseph Conrad develops themes of personal power, individual responsibility, and social justice in his book Heart of Darkness. His book has all the trappings of the conventional adventure tale - mystery, exotic setting, escape, suspense, unexpected attack. Chinua Achebe concluded, "Conrad, on the other hand, is undoubtedly one of the great stylists of modern fiction and a good story-teller into the bargain" (Achebe 25
Hemingway and Camus: Construction of Meaning and Truth $115 Designer Cosmetic Collection From Cosmetique -- Only $1! Hemingway and Camus: Construction of Meaning and Truth Once we knew that literature was about life and criticism was about fiction--and everything was simple. Now we know that fiction is about other fiction, is criticism in fact, or metaphor. And we know that criticism is about the impossibility of anything being about life, really, or even about fiction, or finally about anything
Lord of the Flies: Chapter 9-12 Notes Lord of the Flies: Chapter 9-12 Notes 1. After Simon is killed, the next paragraph begins, "The clouds open and let the rain down like a waterfall..." When the boys kill Simon they not only kill him and spirituality, but what they perceive to be the beast. Because the beast was created by them and embodied all of their evils, one of its interpretations can be as mankind\'s sin. Simon is very similar to Jesus in this book. The Roman\'s ruled the world during