Law

In 1825, a group of American businesspeople announced the formation of a canal building company, with interests in constructing a canal system across the Isthmus. This project was to take place in an area now called Panama. The endeavor was filled with controversy. Though the canal itself was not built until the early 1900\'s every step toward the building and ownership, was saturated with difficulty. Walter LaFeber illustrates the dilemmas in a historical analysis. In his work he states five qu
Throughout American history, Afro-Americans have had to decide whether they belonged in the United States or if they should go elsewhere. Slavery no doubtfully had a great impact upon their decisions. However, despite their troubles African Americans have made a grand contribution and a great impact on our armed forces since the Revolutionary War. The Afro-American has fought against its country\'s wars, and they have also fought the war within their country to gain the right to fight and freedo
During the 1500\'s to 1800\'s, the strength and stature of a country depended upon its political power, which can be traced to how self-sufficient it was. Striving to be self-sufficient was what nations sought after; dependency was not a characteristic of a powerful nation. Raw materials were the most required item to strengthen the central government, and deter interactions, such as trade with other nations. The first country to introduce mercantilism in America was Spain. The spanish american
During the late seventeen hundreds, many tumultuous events resulted in Colonial opposition to Great Britain. The conditions of rights of the colonists will slowly be changed as the constriction of the parliament becomes more and more intolerable. During the Seven Years\' War England was not only alarmed by the colonists\' insistence on trading with the enemy, but also with Boston merchants hiring James Otis inorder to protest the legality of the writs of assistance (general search warrants) used
The period between 1880 and 1900 was a boom time for American politics. The country was for once free of the threat of war, and many of its citizens were living comfortably. However, as these two decades went by, the American farmer found it harder and harder to live comfortably. Crops such as cotton and wheat, once the bulwark of agriculture, were selling at prices so low that it was nearly impossible for farmers to make a profit off them. Furthermore, improvement in transportation allowed fore
On March fourth, 1801, Thomas Jefferson was elected President of the United States of America. Thomas Jefferson was a Republican. Republicans strongly supported farmers, and they wanted an agrarian nation. An agrarian nation means some changes had to be made in the country. The country needed strong trade with other countries, and they also needed more land to farm on. This led to the Louisiana Purchase. The French owned a huge amount of land west of the United States. Inside all of this land wa
The North American frontier contributed greatly to today\'s American culture. For nearly 150 years before independence, the Appalachian mountain range had been the American frontier, separating civilization from wilderness. When North America gained independence and became the United States, however, people began to move more freely across the frontiers, into the unknown. The land belonged to them now, and they were free to explore it however deeply they chose claiming at will what land they saw
The Truman Doctrine was the impetus for the change in United States foreign policy, from isolationist to internationalists; thus we were drawn into two wars of containment and into world affairs. The Truman Doctrine led to a major change in U.S. foreign policy from its inception - aid to Turkey and Greece - to its indirect influence in Korea and Vietnam. The aftermath of World War II inspired the U.S. to issue a proclamation that would stem Communist influence throughout the world. However, our
The Industrial Revolution was dawning in the United States. At Lowell, Massachusetts, the construction of a big cotton mill began in 1821. It was the first of several that would be built there in the next 10 years. The machinery to spin and weave cotton into cloth would be driven by water power. All that the factory owners needed was a dependable supply of labor to tend the machines. As most jobs in cotton factories required neither great strength nor special skills, the owners thought women cou
They are our grandparents, our relatives, our friends. They are the immigrants. They came from all over the world for many reasons, such as, religious persecution and racial tension, but the largest reason for coming to America was for freedom. The freedom to live where we want, to own property, to take part in the government and most importantly, the freedom to be treated like a human being. Coming over was extremely difficult. For some, there were good, seaworthy boats, but most boats were ove
"The tumult and the shouting dies, The captains and the kings depart." -Kipling, The Recessional Mr. Kipling was wrong. War does not always end with the last cry on the battlefield. World War I certainly did not. After the war formally ended on November 18, 1918, there was an ideological war still going on in the US. An ideological war which prompted mass paranoia and caused, among many other things, what would be known as the Red Scare, which began in 1919 and ended in 1921. Red Scare was the l
Iran is a country located in the Middle East. The main source of income for the country is oil, the one object that had greatly influenced its history. Iran\'s present government is run as an Islamic Republic. A president, cabinet, judicial branch, and Majilesor or legislative branch, makes up the governmental positions. A revolution that overthrew the monarch, which was set in 1930, lasted over 15 years. Crane Brinton\'s book, An Anatomy of a Revolution, explains set of four steps a country exp
Of all the ethnic groups in the world, the Kurds are one of the largest that has no state to call their own. According to historian William Westermann, "The Kurds can present a better claim to race purity...than any people which now inhabits Europe." (Bonner, p. 63, 1992) Over the past hundred years, the desire for an independent Kurdish state has created conflicts mainly with the Turkish and Iraqi populations in the areas where most of the Kurds live. This conflict has important geographical im
In his position as King of Babylonia, Hammurabi managed to organize the world\'s first code of laws and establish Babylon as the dominant and successful Amorite city of its time. "Records written on clay tablets show that Hammurabi was a very capable administrator and a successful warrior. His rule spanned from 1792 B.C. to 1750 B.C. When he became king in 1792, he was still young, but had already become entrusted with many official duties in his administration" (Grolier). In the early years of
The Reasons for the fall of Socialism/Communism and the Troubles of Starting the New Democratic System in the Russian Federation "Let\'s not talk about Communism. Communism was just an idea, just pie in the sky." Boris Yeltsin (b. 1931), Russian politician, president. Remark during a visit to the U.S. Quoted in: Independent (London, 13 Sept. 1989). The fall of the Communist regime in the Soviet Union was more than a political event. The powerful bond between economics and politics that was the i
"Everywhere in the world was heard the sound of things breaking." Advanced European societies could not support long wars or so many thought prior to World War I. They were right in a way. The societies could not support a long war unchanged. The First World War left no aspect of European civilization untouched as pre-war governments were transformed to fight total war. The war metamorphed Europe socially, politicaly, economically, and intellectualy. European countries channeled all of their res
None of the European power wanted World War I, but they feared Germany. Germany was newly unified, and was beating the European powers in population and Industry. France wanted to recover the Alsace-Lorraine. Britain was a country used to being on the ocean, so they felt threatened by Germany\'s colonial expansion and William II\'s insisting on a large navy. Russia and Austria feared pressure on their unstable empires. In 1887 William II refused to renew the Reinsurance treaty with Russia, but c
The National Socialist German Workers Party almost died one morning in 1919. It numbered only a few dozen grumblers it had no organization and no political ideas. But many among the middle class admired the Nazis muscular opposition to the Social Democrats. And the Nazis themes of patriotism and militarism drew highly emotional responses from people who could not forget Germanys prewar imperial grandeur. In the national elections of September 1930, the Nazis garnered nearly 6.5 million votes
The term "laws of war" refers to the rules governing the actual conduct of armed conflict. This idea that there actually exists rules that govern war is a difficult concept to understand. The simple act of war in and of itself seems to be in violation of an almost universal law prohibiting one human being from killing another. But during times of war murder of the enemy is allowed, which leads one to the question, "if murder is permissible then what possible "laws of war" could there be?" The an
The occupation of Japan was, from start to finish, an American operation. General Douglans MacArthur, sole supreme commander of the Allied Power was in charge. The Americans had insufficient men to make a military government of Japan possible; so they decided to act through the existing Japanese gobernment. General MacArthur became, except in name, dictator of Japan. He imposed his will on Japan. Demilitarization was speedily carried out, demobilization of the former imperial forces was complete
During the period leading up to World War II, there were two men who were on opposing sides, the men were Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin. These men were each triumphant in their rise to power in their countries and they were very comparable in the ways that they succeeded. Their success was mostly attributed to their new ideas and their politics. Although Hitler and Stalin hated each other, the two leaders were similar in many ways. Hitler and Stalin each rose to the highest position attainable
The New Deal During the 1930\'s, America witnessed a breakdown of the Democratic and free enterprise system as the US fell into the worst depression in history. The economic depression that beset the United States and other countries was unique in its severity and its consequences. At the depth of the depression, in 1933, one American worker in every four was out of a job. The great industrial slump continued throughout the 1930\'s, shaking the foundations of Western capitalism. The New Deal des
Thoreau and Jefferson: A Comparison Henry David Thoreau and Thomas Jefferson were two of our nationís greatest thinkers, writers, and shapers of political thought. Both have been regarded since their (respective) times as visionaries and prolific intellectuals. However, when one compares Jeffersonís original composition of the Declaration of Independence with Thoreauís essay "Resistance to Civil Disobedience", the differences (as well as similarities) are striking. Both Thoreau and Jefferson exp
Kenya Ameru Tribe annon Kenya is a country that has nine provinces. It lies on the equator on the slopes of Mount Kenya and the Nyamben Mountain Range. It covers an area of 3,850 square miles. The climate of Kenya is one of short rains between March and May, with a long rainy season between October and December. Temperatures range from 68 degrees in the higher altitudes around Mt. Kenya, to 90 degrees in the arid Semiaro lands. The people of Kenya hold a proud tradition of farming. Ninety percen
Puritans annon A religious fanatic is someone who takes his or her religion to the extreme, letting it control everything in his or her day to day life. The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay colony are a prime example of this extremist view of religion. They had com plete religion based lives including the laws that they wrote, the way they treated outspoken women, and the way they treated people of other religions. The Puritans, for the most part, were good people, they just went way too far wh
Sparta Vs Athens annon In Ancient Greece there were two different major forms of government, Oligarchy and Democracy. The two city-states that best represent each form of government were Sparta (oligarchy) and Athens (democracy). The democratic government in Athens, though de cently equal, fair and fairly advanced for its time, did not meet the needs of the Greeks. During a time of many military battles Athens decided to worry more about comfort and culture. It is the oligarchy in Sparta that pu
Aristotle And Politics annon Aristotle (b. 384 - d. 322 BC), was a Greek philosopher, logician, and scientist. Along with his teacher Plato, Aristotle is generally regarded as one of the most influential ancient thinkers in a number of philosophical fields, including political theory. Aristotle was born in Stagira in northern Greece, and his father was a court physician to the king of Macedon. As a young man he studied in Plato\'s Academy in Athens. After Plato\'s death he left Athens to conduct
Womens Reform annon Women in the late 19th century, except in the few western states where they could vote, were denied much of a role in the governing process. Nonetheless, educated the middle-class women saw themselves as a morally uplifting force and went on to be reformers. Jane Addams opened the social settlement of Hull House in 1889. It offered an array of services to help the poor deal with slum housing, disease, crowding, jobless, infant mortality, and environmental hazards. For women w
Legacy from the Middle ages Many cultural advancements were made during the Dark Ages which lasted between 500AD and 1000AD. Culture can be divided into five distinct categories such as religion/philosophy, government, science, art/architecture and language/literature. During the Middle ages, there was a great advancement in theology and many of todays finest universities were built such as the Oxford University and some others in Paris and Rome. In the early 20th century, many other universiti
Assassination of JFK annon On Friday, November 22nd 1963 at 12:30 P.M. the 35th president of the United States of America, John Fitzgerald Kennedy assassinated while he rode in an open limousine though the streets of Dallas. This event, which abruptly and severely altered the course of history, it has created more controversy than any other single event. Some haunting questions still remain. Who did it? Why did they do it? How was it done? Was there a cover up The official answers complied by th
The Jackson Age is characterized by the rise of the common man. Through hard work and perseverance one can achieve success and the American Dream. The combination of the Protestant work ethic, ambition, and a little spunk was what personified the Jacksonian Age. With the common man came the acceptance and admiration of traits such as boldness, frankness, and brashness. These ideals of the Jacksonian era are embodied best in Winfield Scott through both his successful career and his outspoken mann
The Whig party (1834-56) of the United States was formed to oppose Andrew JACKSON and the DEMOCRATIC party. The Whig coalition\'s antecedent was the National REPUBLICAN party organized to support President John Quincy ADAMS (1825-29). Led by Henry Clay of Kentucky and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, National Republicans advocated an active federal role in the nation\'s economic development. Known as the American System, their program called for federally sponsored roads and canals, a high tarif
The Ku Klux Klan or KKK is one of America\'s oldest and most feared groups. Driven by the dream of a world with only one master race, the KKK often uses violence and takes the law into their own hands in order to promote their cause. They did not start as a violent group, or to promote white supremacy. At the end of the War between the States in April of 1865, some felt it marked the beginning of a terrible time of trouble for the white citizens who remained loyal to the southern states. This in
Socrates was a great philosopher who lived in Greece. Socrates was the first of, the great trio of ancient Greece  Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, (Encyclopedia Britannica, volume 27). Socrates was born in Athens, Greece in about 470 BC. His father was Sophroniscus, a sculptor, and his mother was Phaenarete. Socrates followed in his fathers footsteps for a while as a sculptor. He designed a statue group of the three graces, which stood at the entrance to the Acropolis until the second centur
A myriad of mysteries is contained in the pages of the Old Testament. For centuries, scholars of theology, archeology and anthropology have labored to produce some explanation of the contradictions and impossibilities put forth in these texts. The ancient ruins of lost cities reveal evidence that some writings may be incorrectly dated, or even that they may be false. Faith and tradition give way to speculation that the Bible may be nothing more than a collection of ancient Israelite mythology. S
Japan is a society whose culture is steeped in the traditions and symbols of the past: Mt. Fuji, the tea ceremony, and the sacred objects of nature revered in Shintoism. Two of the most important traditions and symbols in Japan; the Emperor and Confucianism have endured through Shogunates, restorations of imperial rule, and up to present day. The leaders of the Meiji Restoration used these traditions to gain control over Japan and further their goals of modernization. The Meiji leaders used the
The Meiji government during the 1880\'s created both an institutional and constitution structure that allowed Japan in the coming decades to be a stabile and industrializing country. Two major policies and strategies that reinforced stability and economic modernization in Japan were the creation of a national public education system and the ratification of the Meiji constitution. Both these aided in stability and thus economic growth. The creation of a national education system aided in creating
Propaganda in China during the Cultural Revolution took on many forms; there were mass Red Guard demonstrations in Tianamen Square in support of Mao Zedong, pictures of Mao were put up in every conceivable location from restaurants to the wallpaper in nurseries, and pamphlets and books of Mao\'s teachings were distributed to every Chinese citizen. One of these propaganda publications Quotations from Chairman Mao which later became known as the Little Red Book contained quotes from Mao Zedong and
Sonno joi, "Restore the Emperor and expel the Barbarians," was the battle cry that ushered in the Showa Restoration in Japan during the 1930\'s.Footnote1 The Showa Restoration was a combination of Japanese nationalism, Japanese expansionism, and Japanese militarism all carried out in the name of the Showa Emperor, Hirohito. Unlike the Meiji Restoration, the Showa Restoration was not a resurrection of the Emperor\'s powerFootnote2, instead it was aimed at restoring Japan\'s prestige. During the 1
Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng, the man who had succee
The First and Second Reconstructions held out the great promise of rectifying racial injustices in America. The First Reconstruction, emerging out of the chaos of the Civil War had as its goals equality for Blacks in voting, politics, and use of public facilities. The Second Reconstruction emerging out of the booming economy of the 1950\'s, had as its goals, integration, the end of Jim Crow and the more amorphous goal of making America a biracial democracy where, "the sons of former slaves and t
Enlightenment The Enlightenment is a name given by historians to an intellectual movement that was predominant in the Western world during the 18th century. Strongly influenced by the rise of modern science and by the aftermath of the long religious conflict that followed the Reformation, the thinkers of the Enlightenment (called philosophes in France) were committed to secular views based on reason or human understanding only, which they hoped would provide a basis for beneficial changes affect
Renaissance History has shown us how civilizations evolve over time. Broadly interpreted, the age of Diocletian marked a decisive stage in the transition from the classical, the Greco-Roman, civilization of the ancient Roman Empire to the Christian-Germanic civilization of the early Middle Ages. Similarly interpreted, "the age of the Renaissance marked the transition from the civilization of the Middle Ages to the modern world"(Ferguson 1). Therefore, the Renaissance is the beginning of the mode
1 Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln, from the backwoods of Hodgenville Kentucky, rose to become one of the greatest presidents of the United States. During his attempt to keep the Union in the Civil War, he gained more power and authority than any president before him. A excellent politician, Lincoln was always looked upon for leadership for he put reason and thoughtful decisions behind his word. Abraham Lincoln, born to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hawks on February 12, 1809, was conceived in a log c
History essay No title got an A on it! A case for the connection of Americaís colonial and revolutionary religious and political experiences to the basic principles of the Constitution can be readily made. One point in favor of this conclusion is the fact that most Americans at that time had little beside their experiences on which to base their political ideas. This is due to the lack of advanced schooling among common Americans at that time. Other points also concur with the main idea and make
Agrarian Discontent in the Late 1800\'s "Why the Farmers Were Wrong" The period between 1880 and 1900 was a boom time for American politics. The country was for once free of the threat of war, and many of its citizens were living comfortably. However, as these two decades went by, the American farmer found it harder and harder to live comfortably. Crops such as cotton and wheat, once the bulwark of agriculture, were selling at prices so low that it was nearly impossible for farmers to make a pro
The Aboriginal People of Newfoundland Bibliography Grabowski, Jan. Lecture His 2401, October 4, 1996. Email address: Howley, James Patrick. The Beothuks or Red Indians: The Aboriginal Inhabitants of Newfoundland. University of Cambridge Press., Cambridge, England. Marshall, Ingeborg. History and the Ethnography of the BeothukMcGill)Queens University Press.: 1996, Canada. Marshall, Ingeborg C.L.. Reports and Letters by George Christopher Pulling: Relating to the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland Br
subject = European History title = Caesar and Naopoleon papers = Napoleon Bonaparte\'s success as a military leader and conqueror can also be seen in another great leader, Julius Caesar. Both Napoleon and Caesar achieved great glory by bringing their countries out of turmoil. It was Caesar, that Napoleon modeled himself after, he wanted to be as great, if not greater than Caesar. Looking to the past, Napoleon knew what steps to take in order to achieve success Napoleon devoured books on the art
European History Charles et Secondat, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu Charles de Secondat, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu was born in 1689 to a French noble family. "His family tree could be traced 350 years, which in his view made its name neither good nor bad." (The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, p. 68) Montesquieu\'s views started to be shaped at a very early age. A beggar was chosen to be his godfather to remind him of his obligations to the poor. Montesquieu\'s education started
subject = AP American History title = Causes Of The Civil War papers = The South, which was known as the Confederate States of America, seceded from the North, which was also known as the Union, for many different reasons. The reason they wanted to succeed was because there was four decades of great sectional conflict between the two. Between the North and South there were deep economic, social, and political differences. The South wanted to become an independent nation. There were many reasons