Free Essays

The Toilet Yes...those tales you've heard are true
The Toilet Yes...those tales you\'ve heard are true. The toilet was first patented in England in 1775, invented by one Thomas Crapper, but the extraordinary automatic device called the flush toilet has been around for a long time. Leonardo Da Vinci in the 1400\'s designed one that worked, at least on paper, and Queen Elizabeth I reputably had one in her palace in Richmond in 1556, complete with flushing and overflow pipes, a bowl valve and a drain trap. In all versions, ancient and modern, the w...

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Pens, Thermodynamics, Technology, Engineering, Laboratory glassware, Writing implements, Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, Heat pumps, Refrigerator, Smoke detector, Bic Cristal, Condenser
Toss a pebble in a pond -see the ripples? Now drop
two pebbles close together. Look at what happens when the two sets of waves combine -you get a new wave! When a crest and a trough meet, they cancel out and the water goes flat. When two crests meet, they produce one, bigger crest. When two troughs collide, they make a single, deeper trough. Believe it or not, you\'ve just found a key to understanding how a hologram works. But what do waves in a pond have to do with those amazing three- dimensional pictures? How do waves make a hologram look li...

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Holography, 3D imaging, Optics, Emerging technologies, Light, Science and technology, Laser, Holographic data storage, Computer-generated holography, Jem
Only once in a lifetime will a new invention come
about to touch every aspect of our lives. Such a device that changes the way we work, live, and play is a special one, indeed. A machine that has done all this and more now exists in nearly every business in the U.S. and one out of every two households. This incredible invention is the computer. The electronic computer has been around for over a half-century, but its ancestors have been around for 2000 years. However, only in the last 40 years has it changed the American society. From the first...

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Computing, Computer hardware, Classes of computers, Vacuum tube computers, Punched card, Computer, ENIAC, UNIVAC, Personal computer, Punched card input/output, Operating system, Minicomputer
In the early stages of the twentieth century, litt
le was known about cell membranes. Until the early 1950s, the biological cell membrane was rarely mentioned in scientific literature. It was recognised that something was probably there, but hardly anything about it was known. Considering the lack of technical equipment available a century ago, scientists such as Charles Overton and Edwin Gorter were not only exploring new territory in looking at the properties of cell membranes, but laying the way for future cell biologists. Scientists had to w...

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Membrane biology, Biology, Cell biology, Biophysics, Lipid bilayer, Cell membrane, Biological membrane, Semipermeable membrane, Cell, Membrane models, Fluid mosaic model
Hepatitis B can be prevented with a highly effecti
ve vaccine, but this year ten to thirty million people will become infected with the hepatitis B virus. I feel that because this disease is preventable, only knowledge can help reduce the number of people infected. Hepatitis B is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus. This virus is a blood-borne pathogen. It is one hundred times more infectious than HIV. "Hepatitis B is one of the most frequently reported vaccine preventable diseases in the United States," according to the Cent...

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Medicine, RTT, Microbiology, Infectious causes of cancer, Clinical medicine, Hepatology, Viral diseases, Healthcare-associated infections, Hepatitis, Liver disease, Liver cancer, Hepatocellular carcinoma
Hemorrhoids are a digestive disorder that half the
population of men and women experience at age fifty. There are two types of hemorrhoids: internal and external. Internal hemorrhoids are found inside the anus or in the lower rectum. External hemorrhoids are found on the tissue surrounding the anal sphincters(the two rings of muscle surrounding the opening to the anus). Hemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels in and around the anus. Hemorrhoids are not a dangerous condition, they only cause pain or discomfort, and tend to go away within a few day...

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Medicine, Gastroenterology, Clinical medicine, Colorectal surgery, Rectum, Anus, Digestive system surgery, Hemorrhoid, Anoscopy, Rectal examination, Proctoscopy, Perianal hematoma
(May 1987) By Martin H. Goodman MD (this essay is
in the public domain) Introduction: AIDS is a life and death issue. To have the AIDS disease is at present a sentence of slow but inevitable death. I\'ve already lost one friend to AIDS. I may soon lose others. My own sexual behavior and that of many of my friends has been profoundly altered by it. In my part of the country, one man in 10 may already be carrying the AIDS virus. While the figures may currently be less in much of the rest of the country, this is changing rapidly. There currently...

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HIV/AIDS, Microbiology, Health, Medicine, Sexually transmitted diseases and infections, Pandemics, Women's health, HIV, Virus, Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, Duesberg hypothesis
In the human body, each cell contains 23 pairs of
chromosomes, one of each pair inherited through the egg from the mother, and the other inherited through the sperm of the father. Of these chromosomes, those that determine sex are X and Y. Females have XX and males have XY. In addition to the information on sex, \'the X chromosomes carry determinants for a number of other features of the body including the levels of factor VIII and factor IX.\'1 If the genetic information determining the factor VIII and IX level is defective, haemophilia resul...

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Blood, Coagulation system, Anatomy, Haemophilia, RTT, Peripheral membrane proteins, Blood tests, Coagulation, Factor VIII, Factor IX, Factor VII, Coagulopathy
Science is a creature that continues to evolve at
a much higher rate than the beings thatgave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the timefrom analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remaineddistant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, butnever in history will science be able to so deeply affect our lives as genetic engineering willundoubtedly do. With the birth of this new technology, scientific extremists and...

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Biology, Molecular biology, Biotechnology, Genetics, Gene delivery, Emerging technologies, Genetic engineering, Virus, DNA, Gene therapy, Transformation, Gene
A simulated flight environment for pilot training
may soon be made more realistic through the use of eye-tracking technology developed by researchers at the University of Toronto\'s Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IMBE). Many safety and cost benefits are obtained by training aircraft pilots under simulated conditions, but to be effective the simulation must be convicingly realistic. At present, th e training facilities use large domes and gimballed projectors, or an array of video screens, to display computer-generated images. But these i...

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Humancomputer interaction, Virtual reality, Multimodal interaction, Cognitive science, Eye, Eye tracking, Vision, CAE Inc., Flight simulator, Simulation
Questions on the origin of life and of the univers
e must have challenged human curiosity and imagination as soon as early man had time for activities other than survival. In 1859, Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species, and since then, people have debated between the creationism and evolutionism theories. The theory of evolution has been supported only through various religious writings, particularly the Bible. Creationists believe in a divine creator, God. Creationism has a broad range of beliefs involving a reliance on God’s miraculou...

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Religion, Creationism, Science, Biology, Biological evolution, Pseudoscience, Creation myths, Denialism, Creationevolution controversy, Creation science, Evolutionism, Survival of the fittest
I did my report on filariasis, which is more commo
nly known as elephantiasis. Elephantiasis is the late phase of filariasis. Filariasis is a tropical mosquito born parasitic disease causing obstruction of the lymph vessels. In some people the presence of the worm causes a tissue reaction that causes the lymph flow to be blocked. This blockage produces lymphedema which is a swelling and can eventually lead to a tremendous enlargement of an extremity or organ. When elephantiasis follows repeated infection, parts of the body - particularly the leg...

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Medicine, Clinical medicine, Spirurida, Tropical diseases, Neglected diseases, Helminthiases, Medical signs, Filariasis, Elephantiasis, Microfilaria, Lymphedema, Edema
A virus is an ultramicroscopic infectious organism
that, having no independent metabolic activity, can replicate only within a cell of another host organism. A virus consists of a core of nucleic acid, either RNA or DNA, surrounded by a coating of antigenic protein and sometimes a lipid layer surrounds it as well. The virus provides the genetic code for replication, and the host cell provides the necessary energy and raw materials. There are more than 200 viruses that are know to cause disease in humans. The Ebola virus, which dates back to 197...

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Medicine, Microbiology, Veterinary medicine, Biological weapons, Tropical diseases, Zoonoses, Ebola, Animal virology, Ebola virus disease, Ebola virus, Reston virus, Viral hemorrhagic fever
What is an Earthquake?
An earthquake is a shaking of the ground caused by the sudden shifting of large sections of the earth\'s crust. Earthquakes are one of the most powerful events on earth, and they can be terrifying. A severe earthquake may release energy 10,000 times as great as that of the first atomic bomb. Rock movements during an earthquake can make rivers change their direction. Earthquakes can trigger landslides and Volcanoes that cause great damage and loss of life. Large earthquakes beneath the ocean can...

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Geology, Seismology, Earth, Planetary science, Plate tectonics, Types of earthquake, Physical oceanography, Earthquake, Tectonics, Tsunami, Quake, Crust
Just about 500 years ago people believed that the
earth was still flat, 50 years ago people doubted the existence of an alien life, 5 min ago the people of earth believe that aliens existed. Many individuals around the world have reportedly been contacted by extra terrestrial beings. They allege that Earth is currently being visited by several different species of extra terrestrial. These individuals report that extra terrestrials are visiting the Earth because they are interested in observing the development of the human species. This alone i...

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Roswell UFO incident, Ufology, Fringe theory, Brazel, Roswell, New Mexico, Fiction, Unidentified flying object, Walter Haut, Area 51, UFO, Roswell, Flying saucer
When purchasing a cellular phone there is always t
he question of analog or digital. In analog cellular service the voice is transmitted over a specific radio frequency, usually 800 MHz. Digital cellular service on the other hand breaks the voice down into a binary format where the voice is represented by a series of 1’s and O’s. These simple definitions will help to familiarize yourself with the two systems, but to truly determine which phone is right for you there are four issues that should be addressed, cost, sound quality, coverage, and fea...

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Technology, Electronics, Videotelephony, Telephony, Mobile telecommunications, Mobile phones, New media, Voice over IP, Voicemail, Telephone, Ringtone, Text messaging
PREFACE In an extensive article in the Summer-Autu
mn 1990 issue of "Top Secret", Prof J. Segal and Dr. L. Segal outline their theory that AIDS is a man-made disease, originating at Pentagon bacteriological warfare labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland. "Top Secret" is the international edition of the German magazine Geheim and is considered by many to be a sister publication to the American Covert Action Information Bulletin (CAIB). In fact, Top Secret carries the Naming Names column, which CAIB is prevented from doing by the American government, and...

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HIV/AIDS, Microbiology, Lentiviruses, Virology, Medicine, Animal virology, Visna virus, Human T-lymphotropic virus, HIV, Virus, Robert Gallo, Discredited HIV/AIDS origins theories
Contents
Introduction Overview of Diabetes Type I What is diabetes type I Health implications of diabetes type I Physical Activity What is physical activity? Why do we need physical activity in our lives? Physical Activity and Diabetes (Epidemiology) Conclusion Bibliography Introduction For our seminar topic "physical activity and disease" we chose diabetes as the focus of our research. Since diabetes is such a complex disease with many different forms, we decided to focus on diabetes type I. This is kn...

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Diabetes, Endocrine system, Medicine, Clinical medicine, Diabetes mellitus, Insulin, Blood sugar, Nutrition, Diabetes management, Complications of diabetes mellitus
Creation vs evolution, was man created be an almig
hty god, or is he simply a product of modern science. This question has puzzled scholarly minds for many years and yet will for many to come. The one that makes the most sense to me and has the most supporting evidence, is evolution. Not the normal, goop to fish to creature to monkey to man, obviously I skipped some, but one not so greatly known. It is called punctual equalibrium. Punctual equalibrium is a type of evolution stating that the evolution of man was in quick great changes caused by r...

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Biology, Evolutionary biology, Mutation, Biological evolution, Creationism, Genetics, Cambrian explosion, Cambrian, Evolution, Creationevolution controversy
Creatine has been around forever because it is in
everything that we eat, such as steak, chicken, and fish. It has been around in supplement form since the early 90’s. Various professional, high school and collegiate athletes in the United States and all over the world use Creatine. Some big names in sports that are Creatine users include the likes of Shannon Sharpe of the Denver Broncos. (Behind the Lines: Espn). Others are Pete Sampras and the entire University of Nebraska Football Team. (http://www.espn.go.com/tennis/usopen99/news/1999/0907...

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Bodybuilding supplements, Dietary supplements, Guanidines, Nutrition, Chemistry, Health, Creatine supplements, Biomolecules, Creatine, Phosphocreatine, Loading, EAS
Corrosion and Rusting
Introduction Some people may be annoyed by their car "wearing out". Kids may have trouble with rust forming on their bicycles. One may think how to prevent rusting, but do one knows what is happening when a metal corrode? "Corrosion is defined as the involuntary destruction of substances such as metals and mineral building material by surrounding media, which are usually liquid (i.e. corrosive agents)." Most metals corrode. During corrosion, they change into metallic ions. In some cases, the pr...

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Chemistry, Corrosion, Iron, Rust, Electrochemistry, Redox, Oxide, Corrosive substance, Galvanic corrosion, Passivation
Coral reefs are arguably the world’s most beautifu
l habitats. Coral reefs have been called the rainforests of the oceans, because of the rich diversity of life they support. Scientists have not yet finished counting the thousands of different species of plants and animals that use or live in the coral reef. There are three types of coral reefs: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls. Fringing reefs are located close to shore, separated from land by only shallow water. Barrier reefs lie farther offshore, separated from land by lagoons more th...

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Coral reefs, Physical geography, Physical oceanography, Oceanography, Fringing reef, Coral, Great Barrier Reef, Reef, Southeast Asian coral reefs, Coral bleaching
Computers: Invention of the Century
The History of Computers Only once in a lifetime will a new invention come about to touch every aspect of our lives. Such devices changed the way we manage, work, and live. A machine that has done all this and more now exists in nearly every business in the United States. This incredible invention is the computer. The electronic computer has been around for over a half-century, but its ancestors have been around for 2000 years. However, only in the last 40 years has the computer changed America...

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Computing, History of computing hardware, Classes of computers, Vacuum tube computers, ENIAC, UNIVAC, Computer, J. Presper Eckert, Punched card input/output, Punched card, EDVAC, Harvard Mark I
Computers are the future whether we like it or not
. Some people dislike computers, because of the complications it takes to understand the basics. Computers are not exactly the easiest tools to work with, but they are the most rewarding, and they are the future. Future cars will all be run by computer. You will be able to talk to a car and it will take you to your destination. Telephones are technically computerized. You will soon be able to talk to a person on the telephone as well as look at the person you are talking to on a television set....

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Computing, Technology, Computer, Programmer, Auto mechanic, Steve Jobs, Engineering, Personal computer, Home computer
Computer hackers in today's world are becoming mor
Computer hackers in today\'s world are becoming more intelligent. They are realizing that people are developing more hack-proof systems. This presents the hackers with a bigger challenge, which brings out more fun for them. The government is realizing this and needs to make harsher laws to scare the hackers more. With the increase in hacking and hacker intelligence, governmental regulation of cyberspace hasn\'t abolished the fact that it\'s nearly impossible to bring a hacker to justice. Kevin M...

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Hacker culture, Computing, Culture, Hacking, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly, Technology, Kevin Mitnick, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, Security hacker, Hacker, Digital DawgPound
The meaning of Hacker is one who accesses a comput
er which is supposably not able to be accessed to non authorised people of the community. Hackers may use any type of system to access this information depending on what they intend on doing in the system. Methods Hackers may use a variety of ways to hack into a system. First if the hacker is experienced and smart the hacker will use telnet to access a shell on another machine so that the risk of getting caught is lower than doing it using their own system. Ways in which the hacker will break in...

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Computing, Hacker culture, Hacking, Culture, Software, Identity theft, Security hacker, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, Hacker, Hacker ethic, PlayStation Portable homebrew
Computer Crime has become a very large issue in ou
r society today; this paper will look at this issue from a sociological perspective. It will analyze the various crimes that make up computer crime and see what changes it has brought about in the world in which we live in. Computer crime first is a very new problem in our society today and it is crimes that are committed from a computer. These include embezzling, breaking into other computers, cyber porn and various other crimes that have a drastic affect on the society and the institutions tha...

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Computing, Hacker culture, Crime, Criminology, Hacking, Misconduct, Computer security, Cybercrime, Harassment, Hacker, Security hacker, Organized crime
In this study, I investigate the affects that runn
ing has on reducing the risk of some health problems. I am doing this because I run about 40 to 60 miles per week, and my family has a history of health problems. For instance, my grandfather suffered a heart attack, and he also had cancer when he was about the age of 50. Furthermore, my grandfather, on my dad’s side of the family, has also had triple bi-pass heart surgery from a heart attack he has had recently. Here, I present information from some sources that talk about the affects that runn...

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RTT, Health, Clinical medicine, Medicine, Physical fitness, Physical exercise, Breast cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Diverticular disease, Cancer, Aerobic exercise, Diabetes mellitus
The societal issue being addressed in this article
is the cloning of humans and nuclear cell fusion. This question lingering into every household...Should we be playing God? This question has substantial points on each side. Some people think that we shouldn’t be manipulating nature’s creations ,and we should leave things the way they are because that is the way things are meant to be. Other’s oppose that jurisdiction and state that we can rid the world of cancers and tumors and quite possibly save lives. Others don’t believe strongly either wa...

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Biology, Cloning, Applied genetics, Cryobiology, Molecular biology, Embryology, Embryo, Human cloning, Ethics of cloning
Sensitive chromosome probes recently discovered by
a University of Toronto geneticist will make it easier to detect certain types of genetic and prenatal diseases, as well as being used to determine paternity and provide forensic evidence in criminal cases. Probes are short pieces of DNA which bind to, and actually pinpoint, particular sites on a chromosome. Because these new probes are actually repeated hundreds or thousands of time at a particular site, they are much more sensitive than previously available ones. Of the 23 pairs of human chro...

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Genetics, Biology, Cytogenetics, Chromosomes, Chromosomal abnormalities, Biology of gender, Prenatal diagnosis, Y chromosome, X chromosome, Chromosome abnormality, Aneuploidy, Chromosome
1. a) Bulk movement is the overall movement of a f
luid. The molecules all move in the same direction. Diffusion however is the random movement of molecules which usually results in a fairly even distribution. In other words the movement is not guaranteed to move in one direction but the probability that it will move in the lower gradient is greater. Osmosis is similar to diffusion but is differentiated by the membrane\'s behavior. The cell membrane does allow water to move from higher to lower concentrations but does not allow solutes do that....

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Biology, Chemistry, Membrane biology, Cell biology, Transport phenomena, Diffusion, Water technology, Tonicity, Osmosis, Passive transport, Cell membrane, Water potential
England went through dramatic changes in the 19th
century. English culture, socio-economic structure and politics where largely influenced by the principles of science. Many social expressions occurred due to these changes. Transformations which categorized this time period could be observed in social institutions; for instance: the switch from popular Evangelicalism to atheism, emergence of feminism and the creation of new political ideologies (Liberalism, Conservatism and Radicalism). These are just a few of the changes that took place. All...

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Biology, Academia, Evolutionary biology, Charles Darwin, Sexual selection, Biological evolution, On the Origin of Species, Science, Darwinism, Survival of the fittest, Natural selection, Social Darwinism
Proteins made from ribosomes attached to the rough
endoplasmic reticulum enter the lumen of the ER and move to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. A small vacuole (vesicle) pinches off the smooth ER and carries the protein to the Golgi apparatus, where it is further processed. - Mitochondria are bounded by a double membrane. The inner membrane is folded to form little shelves, called cristae, which project into the matrix, an inner space filled with a gel-like fluid. - A vacuole is a large membrane-enclosed sac that usually functions as a storage...

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Biology, Anatomy, Cell biology, Organelles, Membrane biology, Photosynthesis, Plant anatomy, Chloroplast, Cell, Thylakoid, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endoplasm
To quote Karl Marx, blue boxing has always been th
e most noble form of phreaking. As opposed to such things as using an MCI code to make a free fone call, which is merely mindless pseudo-phreaking, blue boxing is actual interaction with the Bell System toll network. It is likewise advisable to be more cautious when blue boxing, but the careful phreak will not be caught, regardless of what type of switching system he is under. In this part, I will explain how and why blue boxing works, as well as where. In later parts, I will give more practical...

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Telephony, Phreaking, Blue box, Signaling, Telephone call, Telephone exchange, On-hook, Phreaking boxes
Bioethics, which is the study of value judgments p
ertaining to human conduct in the area of biology and includes those related to the practice of medicine, has been an important aspect of all areas in the scientific field (Bernstein, Maurice, M.D.). It is one of the factors that says whether or not certain scientific research can go on, and if it can, under which rules and regulations it must abide by. One of the most recent and controversial issues facing our society today is the idea of cloning. On February 23, 1997, Ian Wilmut, a Scottish sc...

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Biology, Cloning, Molecular biology, Genetics, Asexual reproduction, Human cloning, Dolly, Molecular cloning, Clone, Ethics of cloning, Christian views on cloning
It is always a mystery about how the universe bega
n, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big Bang. Before the Big Bang, all of the matter and radiation of o...

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Physical cosmology, Astronomy, Physics, Philosophy of physics, Big Bang, Steady State theory, Universe, Cosmology, Chronology of the universe, Metric expansion of space, Inflation, Galaxy
I will be discussing the ways to receive, treat, a
nd cope with the disease, Autism. Autism occurs in fifteen out of every ten-thousand births, and is four times more common in boys than girls. Autism is a severely incapacitating lifelong developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life. It has been found throughout the world in families of all racial, ethnic and social backgrounds. No known factors in the psychological environment of a child have been shown to cause autism. Autism is not a genetic disorder, w...

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Medicine, Autism, Health, Abnormal psychology, Psychiatric diagnosis, Disability rights, Autism spectrum, Global perceptions of autism
Just before the beginning of World War II, Albert
Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Urged by Hungarian-born physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wingner, and Edward Teller, Einstein told Roosevelt about Nazi German efforts to purify Uranium-235 which might be used to build an atomic bomb. Shortly after that the United States Government began work on the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project was the code name for the United States effort to develop the atomic bomb before the Germans did. "The first successful experiments...

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Nuclear technology, Manhattan Project, Code names, Nuclear physics, Matter, Actinides, Nuclear materials, Nuclear history of the United States, Plutonium, Uranium, Thin Man, Little Boy
Modern society is becoming overwhelmed with great
amounts of pollution from cars, factories and an overabundance of garbage. The immense amounts of sulphur dioxide emitted into the air causes high levels of acid in the atmosphere. When this sulphuric acid is absorbed into moisture in the air, poignant rainfalls can be damaging to the external environment. Acid rain is destroying the world=s lakes, air and ecosystem. Acid rain is killing lakes and decreasing the number of inhabitants in these fresh water bodies. Acid rain causes an ample deduct...

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Chemistry, Matter, Inorganic solvents, Environmental chemistry, Greenhouse gases, Oxidizing agents, Gaseous signaling molecules, Acid rain, Soil, Carbon dioxide, Acids in wine, Ozone
Breast Cancer
annon In the United States in 1995 alone, 43,063 died from breast cancer. It is the number two cancer killer and the number one cancer in females ages 15 to 54. On average if a woman gets this disease, their life expectancy drops nineteen and a half years. This cancer is within the top three cancers of all woman above the age of 15, and comprises 6% of all health care costs in the U.S. totaling an astounding 35 billion dollars a year. An average woman is said to have a one in thirty chance of g...

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Breast cancer, Cancer, Health, Medicine, RTT, Ribbon symbolism, Hereditary cancers, Breast, BRCA1, Estrogen, Risk factors for breast cancer, Hormonal breast enhancement
Born Addicted to Alcohol
annon There are different characteristics that accompany FAS in the different stages of a child\'s life. "At birth, infants with intrauterine exposure to alcohol frequently have low birth rate; pre-term delivery; a small head circumference; and the characteri stic facial features of the eyes, nose, and mouth" (Phelps, 1995, p. 204). Some of the facial abnormalities that are common of children with FAS are: microcephaly, small eye openings, broad nasal bridge, flattened mid-faces, thin...

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Health, RTT, Psychiatric diagnosis, Medicine, Psychiatry, Syndromes, Teratogens, Neurological disorders, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Alcoholism, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Prenatal development
Animal Testing
annon Every year, millions of animals suffer and die in painful tests to determine the safety of cosmetics. Substances such as eye shadow and soap are tested on rabbits, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, and other animals, despite the fact that the test results don’t help prevent or treat human illness or injury. Cosmetics are not required to be tested on animals and since non-animal alternatives exist, it’s hard to understand why some companies still continue to conduct these tests. Cosmetic...

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Animal testing, Toxicology, Animal welfare, Bioethics, Animal rights, Applied ethics, Alternatives to animal testing, Testing cosmetics on animals, Cruelty-free, Cosmetics, Lethal dose, Toxicology testing
Alternative Medicine
annon Throughout recorded history, people of various cultures have relied on what Western medical practitioners today call alternative medicine. The term alternative medicine covers a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. It generally describes those treatments and health care practices that are outside mainstream Western health care. People use these treatments and therapies in a variety of ways. Alternative therapies used alone are often referred to as alternative; w...

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Medicine, Health, Pseudoscience, Alternative medicine, Alternative medical systems, Acupuncture, Chiropractic, Naturopathy, Traditional Chinese medicine, Mindbody interventions, Physician, Quackery
Title; A day without Electricity
If their were no electricity their would be o way to create batteries or any machinier to use everything would be man made. When waking up in the morning their would be no alarm or heat or even ari conditioning to keep you cool or warm during the night. Getting to school would be another thing cars would not be drivable due to gas being pupmed by electricity.So you would probably have to ride a home made bike or use a horse but then your school would not have a way to run its self either.So the...

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Dried meat, Equipment, Personal life, Jerky, Pencil sharpener, Intercom, Meat, Health
The moons of the Solar System
A moon is an object that rotates around a planet. Every planet except for Venus and Mercury have moons. The biggest moon in the Solar System is Ganymede, it has a diameter of 5,276 kilometres. It rotates around Jupiter. The smallest moon is Deimos, it has a diameter of only 16 kilometres. It rotates around Mars. Our moon is the fifth biggest of the 62 moons in the Solar System. It has a diameter of 3,476. The planet with the most moons is Saturn, it has 17 of them. Europa, which rotates around...

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Astronomy, Planetary science, Outer space, Moons, Natural satellite, Jupiter, Planet, Solar System, Book:The Moons, Book:Solar System
Bears
Bears occupy a diversity of habitats, but human encroachment has squeezed them primarily into mountain, forest, and arctic wildernesses. The animals occur on all continents except Africa, Antarctica, and Australia. (Crowther\'s bear of North Africa\'s Atlas Mountains is believed to be extinct.) The Arctic coast areas of northern countries are the home of the polar bear, the only marine bear. It is also known as the ice bear in some languages because of its preference for sea ice for hunting; th...

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Bears, Predation, Fauna of Asia, American black bear, Brown bear, Spectacled bear, Asian black bear, Sloth bear, Grizzly bear, Polar bear, Eurasian brown bear, Sun bear
Ozone depletion is an environmental problem that m
any people do not take as seriously as they should. “The ozone layer protects animal and plant life from the sun’s harmful radiation. The depletion of the ozone layer will allow ultraviolet rays to, over time, lead to higher skin cancer rates, eye cataracts, and crop damage.” At ground level, ozone, a form of oxygen, is poisonous to humans and other organisms. It causes respiratory problems and damages plants. The greatest concentration of ozone is located in a layer of air cal...

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Foreign relations, Law, Government, Greenhouse gases, Ozone depletion, Ultraviolet radiation, Oxygen, Ozone layer, Ozone, Chlorine monoxide, Chlorofluorocarbon, Air pollution
Acid Rain
annon INTRODUCTION: Acid rain is a great problem in our world. It causes fish and plants to die in our waters. As well it causes harm to our own race as well, because we eat these fish, drink this water and eat these plants. It is a problem that we must all face together and try to get rid of. However acid rain on it\'s own is not the biggest problem. It cause many other problems such as aluminum poisoning. Acid Rain is deadly. WHAT IS ACID RAIN? Acid rain is all the rain, snow, mist etc that f...

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Chemistry, Matter, Inorganic solvents, Environmental chemistry, Oxides, Acid rain, Forest pathology, Pollution, Sulfuric acid, Fish, Calcium carbonate, Carbon dioxide
When most people hear the word “alcohol̶
1; they aren’t that amused or surprised. This is because the majority of the population drinks alcohol during social events or during their meals. It is very unfortunate that so many people are drinking this toxic liquid. It may not kill you the first time but over the long run it can do a lot of damage. Alcohol is the first drug known to man. It is said by many to have been discovered/made in hot climates when dates, grapes, and berries rotted and became liquor. In the old days people bel...

742
words
5
pages
Neurochemistry, Drinking culture, Chemistry, Clinical medicine, Anxiolytics, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, Alcohol, Alcoholic drink, Alcoholism, Distilled beverage, Alcohol intoxication, Ethanol
The recent news of the successful cloning of an ad
ult sheep-in which the sheep\'s DNA was inserted into an unfertilized sheep egg to produce a lamb with identical DNA-has generated an outpouring of ethical concerns. These concerns are not about Dolly, the now famous sheep, nor even about the considerable impact cloning may have on the animal breeding industry, but rather about the possibility of cloning humans. For the most part, however, the ethical concerns being raised are exaggerated and misplaced, because they are based on erroneous views...

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words
7
pages
Biology, Cloning, Bioethics, Applied genetics, Asexual reproduction, Molecular biology, Human cloning, Eugenics, Genetics, Designer baby, Dolly, Ethics of cloning