Grade: 90

NYPonies 10.7.96

AP European History-Unit II Essay Test Mr. Cross

Forward: Although the advent of Lutheranism and the formation of the Church of England have little to do with the secular attitudes during the Italian Renaissance, Calvinism felt itself to be so righteous as to necessitate attempts at de-secularizing those places which it affected, in principle. Although enough parallels can be drawn between Lutheranism and Calvinism to warrant Calvinism\'s inclusion in supporting reasons why the Reformation was not due to the secularism of the Italian Renaissance, it is important to note this key effort in fighting against that very statement. Calvinism, much like Calvin himself, was a paradox of sorts.

The Reformation of European religion in the 16th century cannot be generally attributed to the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance. Although the peasants saw bishops and abbots as part of a wealthy and oppressive ruling class and rebelled against the Roman Catholic Church for reasons primarily pertaining to the lavish adornments used by those aforementioned, their power was not great enough, nor did their reasons carry enough clout to start a reformation movement throughout Europe: that job was accomplished by those already having some, however small, social or religious power, such as the monk Martin Luther, the accomplished priest and lawyer Jean Cauvin, and King Henry VIII of England.

The Lutheran and Calvinist Reformations were very similar in principle, although the Lutheran Reformation was less widespread. Luther and Calvin held that not mere abuses of the Roman Catholic Church needed correcting, but that the Catholic Church itself was wrong in principle. Luther\'s cause for reformation of 16th century European religion came from his unnatural paranoia that he was damned. He had problems convincing himself that his spirit was pure and that he would go to heaven; internal distress raged within him about the awful omnipotence of God, his own insignificant existence in comparison, and his apprehensiveness of the devil. His personal problems would not yield to the existing manners of assuring oneself that he/she was headed for heaven such as sacraments, alms, prayer attendance at Mass, and assorted "good works." Luther solved the problem, however, by believing that good works were the consequence and external evidence of an inner grace, but in no way the cause of this grace. He felt that if one had faith in themselves, the religion, and God, then good works would manifest themselves because of it. This was Luther\'s doctrine of justification by faith. Luther was then involved in various events that provided for the spreading of Lutheranism, albeit sometimes indirectly. The agitation that Lutheranism was creating throughout Europe had revolutionary side effects where the reforming religious spirit was mistaken for that of a social and economic one, especially in Germany in the 1520s. A league of imperial knights, adopting Lutheranism, attacked their neighbors, the church-states of the Rhineland, hoping by annexations to enlarge their own meager territories. In 1524, the peasants of a large part of Germany revolted due to thoughts stirred up by preachers that took Luther\'s ideas a little too far: anyone could see for himself what was right. The peasants\' aims dealt not with religion, however. They demanded a regulation of rents and security of common village rights and complained of exorbitant exactions and oppressive rule by their manorial overlords. Luther, in seeing his original intentions fractured for other uses, redefined his position more conservatively. Nonetheless, Lutheranism spread throughout the Scandinavian and Baltic regions as well as Germany. Lutheranism was closely associated with established states, inhibiting its widespread acceptance. The most widely accepted form of Protestantism was Calvinism, to be discussed shortly hereafter. It is apparent, however, that the Lutheran Reformation was clearly not because of the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance, but more because of the personal conviction of a apprehensive monk.

At the age of 24, John Calvin, a Frenchman born Jean Cauvin, experienced a sudden conversion; a fresh insight into the meaning of Christianity. He joined forces with the religious revolutionaries of whom the best known was then Luther. His book, Institutes of the Christian Religion, appealed to human reason itself. If dissatisfied with the Roman church, people of all countries could find an idea that would most appropriately fit their beliefs or the situation they were in. In general, Calvin was in