Medieval Inventors And Inventions

Medieval

Inventors And Inventions

The Middle Ages brought forth many inventions.

Most inventions, however, were actually invented by workers/smiths as opposed
to scientists. Millers invented waterwheels and wind mills to use
for energy. Inventions such as the water pump and the wheel barrel
also came about in the Middle Ages. In the 13th century glass workers
ground lenses to make spectacles. True clocks were invented during
the Middle Ages (before that people used sundials which relied on the sun).

Sometime during the 14th century springs and gears were used to control
hands of clocks, making clocks a great invention of the time. Eventually
every town in Europe had a clock in the market square.

In 1456 Johann Gutenberg invented the printing
press. Before the printing press, books were written by hand, usually
by monks. This took enormous amounts of time and money. Very
few people at the time could read because the price of books were so high.

Once the printing press came around, however, the rate of book making went
up and the cost went down. The first book to be printed was a bible.

This cut a load of work off of the scribes in the monasteries that previously
had to hand write books. It also forced literacy to be come more
of a necessity in society. Scientists were also appreciative of the
printing press. It allowed the scientists to more easily make copies
of their studies and send them to other scientists.

The Middle Ages were a great time for the
evolution of weapons. The invention of the lance and the saddle improved
cavalries. This led to the growth of heavier armor, the breeding
of larger horses, and the construction of better castles. The earlier

Chinese invention of gunpowder was expanded to manufacture guns (muskets),
cannons, and mortars. These things reduced the need for close combat
and shields.

The agricultural world also had its contributions
to the list of medieval inventions. Heavier plows with wheels, horizontal
plowshares, and a moldboard were invented, which cut down on manual labor.

Three-field crop rotation was invented, moving many farmers to drop the
idea of small, individual farming plots and take in the idea of communal
patterns of open-field agriculture (social and political evolution aided
these changes as well). During the 13th and 14th century, with advances
in agricultural evolution, the invention of the spinning wheel came.

The spinning wheel improved the production of yarn, cotton, and thread
used for cloth.

The means of transportation also improved
during the medieval times. The invention of the horse shoe, the whiffletree,
and the spring carriage made travel easier. Goods were more easily
transported, which aided the growth of industry. The invention of
the deep keel (the triangular lateen sail) made maneuverability of ships
easier. The magnetic compass also made sea travel faster and more
efficient. This technology was so advanced for the time that Prince

Henry of Portugal established a school to teach navigators how to use all
the new machinery. The invention of weight-driven clocks also aided
the progression of sea transportation.

Galileo Galilei’s studies in physics, math,
and astronomy brought new thoughts to the science world. Galileo
invented a calculating "compass" to be used for solving mathematical problems.

In 1906 Galileo heard that the spyglass had been invented in Holland.

After he heard this news he made a telescope to the doge of Venice.

After that he built a telescope that had a 20x magnification. He
used his new invention to discover mountains and craters on the surface
of the moon. He also used his telescope to discover the four largest
satellites of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, and sunspots on the sun.

The medieval time period played a large
role in social evolution. Without the inventions and discoveries
of the Middle Ages, today’s technology would not be nearly as advanced
as it is. Science would still be based on the Church’s ideas and
ideals, travel and transportation would be slower, agriculture would be
harder, architecture wouldn’t be as diverse as it has been throughout time.

Even the simple invention of linen undergarments allowed people to design
more comfortable and suiting clothes and fabric.