I have never really had an interest in
religion and the beliefs it is made of. This all leaves me confused at
times. Religion explains the creation of humankind, since I have no religious
beliefs then where does this leave me in thought about where I came from?

Actually it left me no where. I have just recently taken an anthropology
class the second semester of my freshman year at Montgomery College. I
am just know gaining a belief in where and when man was created. Just think,
most people are instilled with religion early in life, mostly by their
parents or the schools that there parents make the attend at an early age.

I have always been to stubborn to listen to anything my parents had to
say, leading me to find out things for myself. I have only been able to
listen and understand things that I like and listening to my anthropology
teacher was something that I could understand and enjoyed listening to.

He was the one who first introduced me to Neanderthals.

Many Anthropologists believe that Neanderthals
were in fact a direct ancestor to modern man. Thus giving Anthropologists
an idea of where we started out. On the other hand some Anthropologists
think that the Neanderthals had no relation to modern man. Through the
research that I have done, there is little info that supports that Neanderthals
were in fact ancestors, but there is a definite larger amount of info that
supports that they are not ancestors of man. Most of the information that
supported that Neanderthals were direct ancestors has been found to be
incorrect through research and technology.

In 1856 at the Feldhofer Cave, Germany,

Neanderthal Man introduced himself to the world indicated by Turnbaugh,

Jurmain, Nelson, Kilgore in the seventh edition of Understanding Physical

Anthropology and Archeology. Named after the valley in which he was discovered
(Neander Tal), this hominid would send anthropologists mad for over 100
years. They were initially though of as dim-witted brutes with clubs and
beast like characteristics. French Paleontologist, Marcelin Boule was the
creator of this misconception about the Neanderthals. Boule declare that
these hominids were unintelligent due to their low-browed brains and that
the only thing that they could make is their tools and not much else. Boule
believed that the beast walked bent need and head projecting forward with
his big toe similar to a chimpanzee. Later it is learned that in fact his
misconception about the beast steered him wrong in his examination of the
elderly hominid. Actually the bones that he examined was crippled and had
suffered from arthritis, over looked by Boule. Some Anthropologists believe
that it is almost impossible to miss the evidence of arthritis on the old
mans bones because it is so obvious to see. Either way, Boule’s analysis
left a permanent scar on the Neanderthals image that would not be changed
until many years later (307).

In recent years researchers have successfully
extract and sequence DNA from a Neanderthal fossil. A small piece of bone
from the humorous was removed from the original Neandertal Vally fossil
and compared to numerous other DNA samples. Definite proof can not be determined
from one sequence of an individual, in fact new data leading in favor of

Neanderthals: showing that they were a branch of the human family, not
a direct ancestor. The results from the tests indicate that the Neanderthal

DNA is considerably different from the other DNA that was tested. The other

DNA that was tested was from Humans as well as chimpanzees. From the result
of these DNA tests, researchers stand by the view that "Neanderthals exist
as a species independent from early modern man". Thus living up to the
name of Neanderthals as an evolutionary dead end (Science 176-178).

"Mitochondria is an important cell
that finally determined the relation between man and Neanderthals" (Newman


There is also a "cultural contrast between
the Neanderthals and Homo sapiens (early modern man)" indicated by Turnbaugh,

Jurmain, Nelson, Kilgore in the seventh edition of Understanding Physical

Anthropology and Archeology. These differences set them apart in a way
that tells us how they lived and defines the difference in the two.

Tool technology on the behalf of
the Neanderthals was less advanced. Flake tools were used for specific
and few operations. Bone, antler, and ivory were used infrequently. Most
tools had only one or two parts. While the Homo sapiens were using
a wide verity of stone tools. Using bone, antler and ivory as often as
possible. As well as having many more tools with two or more parts.

Hunting is another aspect that Neanderthals
fell behind in and may have lead to there evolutionary