On March fourth, 1801, Thomas Jefferson was elected President
of the United States of America. Thomas Jefferson was a Republican.

Republicans strongly supported farmers, and they wanted an agrarian
nation. An agrarian nation means some changes had to be made in the
country. The country needed strong trade with other countries, and
they also needed more land to farm on. This led to the Louisiana


The French owned a huge amount of land west of the United

States. Inside all of this land was the mouth of the Mississippi

River, New Orleans. Because the Republicans wanted a farming nation,

America needed a port like New Orleans. Jefferson didn\'t think that

Napoleon would sell all of this land, but he asked him anyway if he
was willing to sell. To his surprise Napoleon did want to sell this
land because he needed more money for his fight with Great Britain. So

Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory, and doubled the nation\'s
size. This purchase was a mastermind move by Jefferson that let the
farming nation trade using the whole Mississippi.

Another achievement of Thomas Jefferson was the exploration of
the Louisiana Territory. He hired Lewis and Clark to explore the
uncharted territory. He told them to search the land for a river
passage to the Pacific Ocean. Jefferson also told them to keep diaries
and make maps. This was Clark\'s task. In May, 1804, forty-four men set
out on the expedition. The travelers tried to be friendly with the

Indians on their way. When they reached North Dakota they hired the

French trapper Toussaint Charbonneau, and his wife Sacajawea to be
guides and interpreters. With them they traveled all the way to the

Pacific Coast and back. Even though many people were disappointed upon
their return that they had not found an all water route, Lewis and

Clark were the first to map most of this land we call America. They
also aroused an interest in the people to move westward in the growing

Let\'s go back a little bit to when Napoleon sold the Louisiana

Territory to the United States. He needed money to fight in the war he
was having with Great Britain. Since the United States had a small
military, it did not want to be involved in the French-British War.

America tried to stay neutral while trading with Europe, but France
and Great Britain kept on violating their neutrality rights. The

United States kept on trying to trade, but both sides put blockades on
each others ports. This meant that the other countries took their
ships. The British, however, not only took their ships, but they also
impressed American sailors.

During all of this mayhem President Madison came to power.

Because of Britain\'s violations of America\'s sailors, he asked
congress to declare war against Britain. Congress voted yes to the
war. Afterwards, it was named the War of 1812. After two years of
fighting, General Andrew Jackson came out victorious. A treaty was
signed in Belgium, and the growing nation finally earned a little
respect. They did this by changing the attitude of the Europeans
towards them.

Following the War of 1812, Andrew Jackson ran for president in

1828 and won. Jackson is said to be the first western president.

President Jackson was odd in a the way he sided with states on some
things and on other things he did not. He wanted to remove the

Indians, get rid of the National Bank, and in 1828 he let a tariff
pass that taxed imports. This angered Vice President Callhoon, and
other people from South Carolina who said it was unfair. The
consequence was that South Carolina nullified the tariff, Callhoon
resigned, and South Carolina threatened to form their own government.

Even though the Civil War wasn\'t until many years later, this was a
sign of internal conflict that could threaten the growth of the

Part of the reason that there was this internal conflict was
that our nation was growing very rapidly, and each area of the country
had huge differences. For example I will take political parties. The

Republicans were farmers. They wanted a farming nation much like the

South was. The Federalists were much different being from New England.

They supported industry and manufacturing goods. An example of party
differences is that of the Whisky Rebellion. In this the Federalists
who were in power at the time past a law which put a twenty-five
percent tax on whisky. This angered Republican farmers who turned
their grain into whisky. A full scale revolt came out of this which
threatened the ever-changing young country.

Another difference was in the people themselves. Many Germans
and Irish people immigrated to