Planning for Management Information System

Planning
for Management Information System

The biggest challenge and
most critical success factor in reengineering projects are persuading the
people within the organization to cooperate. When you begin to computerize
a legacy system considers the advantages; reduced clerical cost, quicker
processing time and improved customer service. Everyone knows that
the computer capabilities alone make life a lot easier for all managers.

The advantage of time and accuracy spread over the lifespan of the information
system means improved long-term vision and focus for top, middle and lower
managers.

A management
information system (MIS) focus is on information that management needs
to prepare its job. This task becomes much more difficult when the
major players have a tradition of high independence, are often confrontational
to management, and are irreplaceable independent contractors. CIO\'s in
major business organizations face exactly this situation; further complicated
by the fact that the reengineering effort is crucial to the continued existence
of the organization.

Such discussion has driven the software industry to focus attention on
software specifically designed to support the team approach essential to
most service and customer oriented organizations. The importance of teamwork
can not be over emphasize in achieving overall organizational goals, and
the need to capture and manage an organization\'s knowledge base remain
crucial. This teamwork enables the organization to achieve and sustain
competitive advantage in their business.

In considering the framework for an information system (IS) each level
operational, tactical and strategic planning requires different IS.

At the operational planning system, the IS collect, validate and record
transactional data relating to acquisition or disbursement of resources.

The data for account receivable and payables, payrolls, inventory level,
shipping data, printed invoice and cash receipts recorded as they occur.

The operational-level IS characteristic are repetitive, predictable, emphasizes
the past and detailed in nature just to name a few. The focus of
the operational system is the daily tasks performed at the user level.

The operational level manager uses this data to check every day tasks,
i.e. ordering, shipping, inventory control, the essence of the business
processes.

The
second level in the framework is the tactical system. This system
provide middle-level managers with information to monitor and control operation
while allocating their resources efficiently. The data is summarized,
aggregated, or analyzed with a wide range of reports, i.e., summary, exception
and ah hoc reports. The tactical information system differs from
operational information system in the basic purpose: operational support
the execution of tasks and a tactical information system supports a manager
control over those tasks under their area of supervision as well as the
allocation of resources to meet the company objectives set by top management.

The data input and the information produced as outputs differ from the
type of data involved, tactical characteristics are periodic in nature,
with unexpected findings, comparative in nature with both internal and
external sources. The tactical information system purpose and the
regularity of report produced within the information system are drastically
different from an operational system.

The
third level in the framework is strategic planning, designed to provide
top managers with information that assist them in making long-range planning
decisions for the business. The different in strategic and
tactical are not always clear, because both types of information systems
may use some of the same data, you might say that the systems sometimes
overlap with the difference being in the data that the system uses.

Typically, top management uses strategic planning system to forecast long-range
company objectives. The characteristics are ah hoc basis, unstructured
format, external source, and subjectivity, summary and predictive in nature.

A MIS provides information for effective planning and tactical decision
making, which is the foundation of operational level data system.

A tactical planning system provides middle-level management with the ability
to monitor and control resources. The tactical information
system does not support the execution of operational tasks, but allow managers
visibility over the operation.

Information systems are costly, to deploy and maintain, yet the maximization
of economic value of IS in the long-run balance out over the initial set-up
cost. The right software products enable teams of people to integrate their
knowledge, work processes and applications to achieve improved business
effectiveness. It has been suggested that the implementation
of such technologies is more difficult and yields more unintended consequences
than is typically acknowledged. First, how such technologies are
used reflect the effects. Second, how these technologies are likely used
when alternative tools co-exist, meaning predictability is difficult from
technological characteristics. Third, because people use groupware with
other people, one person\'s choices about how to use groupware may have
consequences for other group members, user satisfaction.

The
measurement for an effective MIS must be the users; usage and satisfaction
have a strong correlation. Obvious, the effectiveness of MIS