The Chinese Communist Revolution

The Chinese

Communist Revolution

During the mid 19th century many
upheavals and rebellions launched China into a new course of modernization.

These also lead to the creation of the Chinese Communist party (CCP) which
in 1949 over through the government to take all government control.

Mao Zedong

Mao was born on December 26 in 1893, in
a peasent family in Shao-shan in the Hunan province. As a child he worked
in the fields and attended a local primary school. He was frequetly in
conflict with his strict father.

Beginning in 1911, the year that the republican
forces of Sun Yat-Sen launched the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty, Mao
spent allmost ten years in Chang-sha, the province capital. He was exposed
to the tides of rapid political change and the new cultural movement that
was sweeping the country. He served for a brief period in the republican
army and then spent half a year studying alone in the provincial library.

By 1918, Mao had graduated from the Hunan

First Normal School and had left for Peking, the national capital. In Peking
he briefly worked as a library assistant at Peking University. Mao lacked
the funds to support a regular student status and therefore mastered no
foreign language, which would have enabled him to go abroad to study. Some
historians arguee that it may be partly due to this relative poverty during
his student years that he never identified compltely with the cosmopolitan
intellectuals who dominated Chinese university life. He did, instead, establish
contact with intellectual radicals who later figured in the Chinese Communist
party. In 1919, Mao returned to Hunan, where he engaged in radical political
activity, organizing groups and publishing a political review.

Mao and The CCP

When the Chinese Communist party was founded
in Shanghai in 1921, Mao was a founding member and the leader of the Hunan
branch. At this stage the party formed a united front with the Koumintang,
the party of republican followers of Sun Yat-sen. Mao worked with the united
front in Shanghai, Hunan and Canton, concentrating on labour organization,
party organization, propagande and the Peasant Movement Training Institute.

His 1927 "Report on the Peasant Muvement in Hunan" expressed his view of
the revolutionary potential of the peasantry although this view was not
yet phrased in a proper Marxian form.

Chiang Kai Shek

Chiang was born in Fenghua, Zhejiang Province,
on October 31, 1887. After some training at the National Military Academy
in Baoding , he went to Tokyo in 1907. There he attended the Military Staff

College and met Sun Yat-sen, a revolutionary leader opposing the reigning

Qing Manchu dynasty. Chiang joined Sun\'s T\'ung-meng Hui (Chinese for Revolutionary

Alliance), a secret organization and the forerunner of the Kuomintang (Nationalist

Party, or KMT). When the 1911 uprising broke out in China, Chiang returned
to Shanghai, where he took part in the overthrow of the imperial government
and the establishment of the Republic of China . He also participated in
the subsequent Second Revolution and the campaign against the warlord Yüan

Shih-k\'ai, in office from 1915 to 1916. In 1923, when seeking assistance
from the Soviet government, Sun sent Chiang to the USSR to study the Soviet
military and social systems. In 1924 he became superintendent of Whampoa

Military Academy, the training center for the KMT army. Then he was
confronted with the CCP

KMT meets the CCP

In 1927, Chiang, who had gained control
of the Kuomintang after the death of Sun Yat-sen, reversed the party´s
policy of cooperation with the Communists. By the next year, when he had
control of the Nationalist armies as well as the Nationalist government,

Chiang purged all the Communists from the movement. As a result, Mao was
forced to flee to the countryside. In the mountains of south China he established
with Chu Teh a rural base defended by a guerrilla army. It was this almost
accidental inoovation that was to make Mao the leader of the CCP. Because
of their growing military power, Mao and Chu were able by 1930 to defy
orders of the Soviet-controlled CCP leadership that directed them to capture
cities. In the following year, despite the fact that his position in the
party was weak and his policies were criticized, A Chinese soviet was founded
in Juichin in the Kiangsi province, with Mao as chairman. A series of extermination
campaigns by Chiang Kai-shek´s Nationalist government forced the

CCP to abandon Juichin in october 1934 and to commence the Long March.

At Tsun-i in Kweichow, Mao for the first time gained effective control
over the CCP, ending the era of Soviet direction of party