The Political Framework Of Islam

The Political

Framework Of Islam

The political system of Islam is based
on the three principles of towhid (Oneness with Allah), risala ( Prophethood),
and khilifa ( Caliphate). Towhid means that one Allah alone
is the Creator, Sustainer, and Master of the universe and of all that exists
in it- organic or inorganic. He alone has the right to command or
forbid, and worship and obedience are due to him alone. The Islamics
believe that it is not for them to decide the aim or purpose of our existence
or to set the limits of our worldly authority; nor does anyone else have
the rights to make these decisions for them. These rights rest only
with Allah. This principle of the Oneness with Allah makes meaningless
the concept of the legal and political sovereignty of human beings.

No individual, family, class or race can set themselves above Allah.

Allah alone is the ruler and his commandments constitute the law of Islam.

Risala is the medium in which Islamics receive the law of Allah.

They have received two things from this source: the Qur’an ( the book in
which Allah has expounded his law), and the authoritative interpretation
and exemplification of that book by the prophet Muhammad ( blessings of

Allah and peace be upon him), through word and dead, in his capacity as
the representative of Allah. The Qur’an laid down the broad principles
on which human life should be based and the Prophet of Allah, in accordance
with these principles, established a model system of Islamic life. The
combination of these two elements is called the shari’a (law). Khilifa
means "representation" Man, according to Islam, is the representative of

Allah on earth. Khilifa also means that no individual or dynasty
or class can be the law: the authority of Khilfa is bestowed on the whole
of any community which is ready to fulfil the conditions of representation
after subscribing to the principles of Towhid and risala. Such a
society carries the responsibility of the Khilafa as a whole and each one
of its individuals shares in it.

This is the point where democracy begins
in Islam. Every individual in an Islamic society enjoys the rights
and powers of the caliphate of Allah and in this respect all individuals
are equal. No-one may deprive anyone else of his rights and powers.

The agency for running the affairs of the state will be formed by agreement
with these individuals, and the authority of the state will only be an
extension of the powers of the individuals delegated to do it. Their
opinion will be decisive in the formation of the government, which will
be run with their advice and in accordance with their wishes. Whoever
gains their confidence will undertake the duties and obligations of the
caliphate on their behalf; and when he loses this confidence he will have
to step down. In this respect, the political system of Islam is as
perfect a dorm of democracy as there can be. What distinguishes Islamic
democracy from Western democracy, therefor, is that the latter is based
on the concept of popular sovereignty, while the former rests on the principle
of popular khilafa. In Western democracy, the people are sovereign;
in Islam sovereignty is vested in Allah and the people are his caliphs
or representatives. In the former the people make their own; in the
latter they have to follow and the laws given by Allah through his Prophet.

In one the government undertakes to fulfil the will of the people; in the
other the government and the people have to fulfil the will of Allah.

The Holy Qur’an clearly states that the
aim and purpose of this state is the establishment, maintenance, and development
of those virtues which the Creator wishes human life to be enriched by
and the prevention and eradication of those evils in human life which he
finds abhorrent. The Islamic state is intended neither solely as
an instrument of political administration nor for the fulfillment of the
collective will of any particular set of people; rather, Islam places a
high ideal before the state for the achievement of which it must use all
the means at its disposal. This ideal is that the qualities of purity,
beauty, goodness, virtue, success and prosperity, which Allah wants to
flourish in the life of his people, should be engendered and developed
and that all kinds of exploitations, injustice and disorder which, in the
sight of Allah, are ruinous for the world and detrimental to the life of
his creatures, should be suppressed and